Notes on Defining Key Terms and Events in History

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Warren G. Harding - Became president in 1921. Was a republican and is known for being ‘scandalous,’ but really it was the people and events around him that tainted his presidency. He later died in 1923 due to sickness. Calvin Coolidge - Became president after Harding died in 1923. Was a republican. He was nicknamed ‘Silent Cal’ because he was soft spoken. He believed in big businesses being supported by government. Herbert Hoover - Was the republican president after Coolidge. He supported prohibition and wanted the economy to become prosperous. He did bring prosperity to the US in the early years of his presidency. Encouraged Americans to do things to support the war effort, such as giving up some of their food. Franklin D. Roosevelt - Was the democratic nominee in the 1932 election. Created and passed the ‘New Deal,’ which he spoke about in his acceptance speech. The New Deal gave back money to tax payers, allowed construction companies to make a lot of money, created many new jobs, and also made trade with Mexico much easier. Albert Fall - Was a republican. Was Harding’s New Mexico senator. He was secretary of the interior. He was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal, and was convicted of taking bribes for leases on federal oil reserves. James Cox - He was the democratic candidate in the 1920 election. Was also governor of Ohio. His running mate was FDR, and he supported League. Babe Ruth - Famous baseball player who became a sports hero. Sports heroes began becoming famous during the 1920’s. Gertrude Ederle - Became the first woman to swim the English Channel in 1926. Charles A. Lindbergh - Was an american aviator who made the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean solo. Became an isolationist orator after his infant son was murdered. Charlie Chaplin - Was an actor during the 1920’s and 1930’s. Rebelled against assembly lines and how they were run, and became a symbol of threat against individuals. Al Jolson - The first “talkie” (movie with sound) was about him. He was a famous jazz singer. Amelia Earhart - Was the first woman to take a transatlantic flight in 1932. She became a female icon because she was daring and because of her will to persevere. Unfortunately, while flying over the Pacific, her plane mysteriously dissappeared and was never found. Andrew Mellon - Was the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding administration. He got congress to lower taxes, and favored expansion of capital investment and tax policies. Charles Dawes - Coolidge’s VP after 1925. Created the Dawes plan, which would revive the German economy. The US would loan Germany money for reparations to England and france who would then pay back those loans. Al Capone - Was a famous gangster who lived in Chicago during prohibition. Was later arrested in 1933 for tax evasion. William Simmons - Was a leader in the KKK, and was also a racist and a nativist. D.W. Griffith - He was an american Film director who directed the highly controversial silent movie, ‘Birth of a Nation.’ John Scopes - Tennessee teacher who taught evolution to his class. Ended up in the Scopes Monkey trial, which caused the national debate between evolution and creationism. Was found guilty and was fined one hundred dollars, which was eventually set aside on technicality. Clarence Darrow - Was a famous criminal lawyer, and worked to defend Scopes in the Scopes Monkey trial. He made William Jennings Bryan look like a fool. Debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools. William Jennings Bryan (1920s) - Went against Scopes in the Scopes Monkey trial. Argued with Darrow over the countrywide issue of teaching evolution in public schools. He thought that evolution should not be taught in school. Alfred E. Smith (1928) - He was Irish American. Was the democratic governor of New York who became the first Catholic to be nominated for the presidency by a major party in 1928. Langston Hughes - Was a popular poet during the Harlem Renaissance. He used rhythms influences by...
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