Total war: Mobilization of a whole society and its resources for a war effort with objective of a total victory over the opponent
-With the enormous war effort peace settlement was virtually impossible, letting the different countries no other choice than fighting for a total victory, no matter what the costs were.
-France wanted to regain Alsace-Lorraine
-France and Britain: wanted to crush ‘Prussian militarism’ Used their worldwide empire to have a war of attrition against Germany, which was strongly limited in its resources. →Hunger and shortages ‘led to calls for peace and provoked political and social divisions in Germany’.
-Germany: also wanted to create a blockade against Britain→ Submarines to ‘blockade the waters around Britain and Ireland’. Germany wanted to starve out Britain before the USA came to help them with their supplies, this however failed.
Through the war, both sides used the full arsenal of weapons at their disposal and also developed new technologies for a total victory Revolutions in air war, submarine war and ‘new weapons notably the tanks and gas’. Although new weapons were invented during the war they were not as effective as developed nineteenth century weapons such as artillery, the rifle and machine gun.
-Propaganda from below:
Civilians were exposed to propaganda at all times. Propaganda was presented via newspapers, posters, cartoons, postcards and souvenirs. Influential community leaders such as teachers also added their voice. Also commercial interest in the war effort was great and increased sales.
-Through blockades, many civilians were not supplied anymore and many died. -Civilian women also became part of the working force since too many men were off fighting for their country.
- More interventionist and directive in economy, labour relations, mass conscriptions, food rationing…
-The government responsible for propaganda from...