Fundamental Economics Concepts: Opportunity Cost, Discounting principle, Time perspective, Incremental reasoning, Equi-marginal concept. Marginal concept in economics.
Economics of information: Risk, Uncertainty, Asymmetry of information, Adverse Selection, Market Signaling.
The theory of firm; Econometric Models & Economic optimization. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Economics Basics: Introduction
Economics is a social science which studies economic activities of man. Economic activities are related to production, consumption, distribution, exchange, public finance, planning etc. Adam Smith, who is unanimously regarded as the father of Economics defines Economics as a study of wealth. Economics may appear to be the study of complicated tables and charts, statistics and numbers, but, more specifically, it is the study of what constitutes rational human behavior in the endeavor to fulfill needs and wants. As an individual, for example, you face the problem of having only limited resources with which to fulfill your wants and needs, as a result, you must make certain choices with your money. You'll probably spend part of your money on rent, electricity and food. Then you might use the rest to go to the movies and/or buy a new pair of jeans. Economists are interested in the choices you make, and inquire into why, for instance, you might choose to spend your money on a new DVD player instead of replacing your old TV. They would want to know whether you would still buy a carton of cigarettes if prices increased by $2 per pack. The underlying essence of economics is trying to understand how both individuals and nations behave in response to certain material constraints. ((To learn how economic factors are used in currency trading, read Forex Walkthrough: Economics.) We can say, therefore, that economics, often referred to as the "dismal science", is a study of certain aspects of society. Adam Smith (1723 - 1790), the "father of modern economics" and author of the famous book "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", spawned the discipline of economics by trying to understand why some nations prospered while others lagged behind in poverty. Others after him also explored how a nation's allocation of resources affects its wealth. To study these things, economics makes the assumption that human beings will aim to fulfill their self-interests. It also assumes that individuals are rational in their efforts to fulfill their unlimited wants and needs. Economics, therefore, is a social science, which examines people behaving according to their self-interests. The definition set out at the turn of the twentieth century by Alfred Marshall, author of "The Principles Of Economics" (1890), reflects the complexity underlying economics: "Thus it is on one side the study of wealth; and on the other, and more important side, a part of the study of man." In order to begin our discussion of economics, we first need to understand (1) the concept of scarcity and (2) the two branches of study within economics: microeconomics and macroeconomics. 1. Scarcity
Scarcity, a concept we already implicitly discussed in the introduction to this tutorial, refers to the tension between our limited resources and our unlimited wants and needs. For an individual, resources include time, money and skill. For a country, limited resources include natural resources, capital, labor force and technology. Because all of our resources are limited in comparison to all of our wants and needs, individuals and nations have to make decisions regarding what goods and services they can buy and which ones they must forgo. For example, if you choose to buy one DVD as opposed to two video tapes, you must give up owning a second movie of inferior technology in exchange for the higher quality of the one DVD. Of course, each...