Natural Science

Topics: Cell, Eukaryote, Water Pages: 40 (9799 words) Published: August 4, 2013
Introduction to
A Simplified Approach


Biological science is the study of living things. In this context we may ask: What are living things? We humans, ourselves are living things. How do living things differ from non-living things? To answer these questions, we must first define the word life. Life (cf. biota) is a characteristic that distinguishes objects that have signalling and self-sustaining processes from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or else because they lack such functions and are classified as inanimate. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.

Characteristics of Living things vs. Non-living things:

Characteristics| Living| Non-living|
1. Form & Size| With forms and size, arranged as definite individuals| Materials vary widely| 2. Organization| Made up of cells| Structure depends on chemicals present and mode of formation| 3. Movement| Independent| Dependent|

4. Growth & Life Cycle| G- Intussusception (I.G)LC- Definite| G- Accretion (E.G)LC- External addition| 5. Metabolism| Anabolism & Catabolism| None|
6. Irritability| Disproportionate| Definite quantitative| 7. Reproduction| Ability to create| None|

Characteristics of Plants vs. Animals:

Characteristics| Plants| Animals|
1. Form & Structure| Constant body form| Variable body form| 2. Metabolism| Independent| Dependent|
3. Irritability| With Nervous system| Without Nervous system|

A. History of Biology – The Famous Biologist’s and their contributions.

I. Primitive Period
- Uncritical accumulation of information
- No recorded information

II. Classical Period
- Greek and Roman influence
- Curiosity about natural phenomena and ability to organize biological knowledge and record it

1. Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos - He is referred to as the father of medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine.

2. Aristotle
Famous Greek Philosopher
Pioneered Zoology
First to classify living things
Divided the plants into herbs, shrubs and trees and animals into land dwellers, water dwellers and air dwellers

3. Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus
Greek physician who describe the anatomy of the human body based on dissections of apes and pigs. showed that arteries carry blood
His description contained many errors, however, and were unchallenged for 1,300 years.

III. Renaissance Period
- Took place during the 14th to 16th centuries

1. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo - made accurate studies in plants, animals and human anatomy. 2. Andreas Vesalius
Father of Modern Anatomy
Made the first studies on human anatomy by dissecting corpses “De Humani Corporis Fabrica”. He pioneered the comparative approach, which is using other animals to know the function and organization of a particular anatomical part of the body. 3. William Harvey

English physician who showed conclusively that the heart pumps the blood and the blood circulates. He stimulated the development of anatomy by proving the principle that structure and function must be studied together. Gave an accurate account of the mechanism of the circulatory system 4. Marcello Malpighi

Italian physician and anatomist who was the founder of microscopic anatomy. In 1661, he discovered the capillaries, shedding light to the missing element in Harvey’s theory of blood circulation. Observed the microscopic components of the liver, brain, kidneys, spleen, bone, and the inner, or what came to be known as the Malpighian, layer of the skin discover red blood corpuscles 5. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Cloth merchant, was the first to use the microscope with great observational and...
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