Muar 211 Study Guide

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MUMedieval Period
* Hildegard von Bingen: Columba aspexit
* Genre = plainchant
* Text = sacred, Latin
* Texture: monophonic throughout
* Performance practice: responsorially, that is, the performance alternates between a single singer (soloist) and the larger choir, which “responds” * The piece becomes more melismatic as it continues. * Ensemble: female vocal soloist, female vocal choir, droning instrument that plays out one note (the final) * Guillaume da Machaut: Dame, de qui toute ma joie vient * Genre = chanson (general term for French secular song) * Text = vernacular (language French), secular

* Texture = non-imitative polyphony (four voices with four independent melodies that never repeat the music of another voice part) * Ensemble: a cappella
Renaissance Period
* Guillaume Dufay: Ave maris stella
* Fauxbordon style: a form of harmonization in three parts in which the second line follows the top line a perfect fourth below. The voices are often “moving in parallel thirds,” a relatively new sound and texture at the time. * Based in the Dorian mode

* Homophonic/homophonic texture (multiple parts that move mostly in homorhytm, therefore creating a succession of chords) * The top line is an elaborated form of a Gregorian chant melody ie the top line is a cantus firmus. Latin * Genre: Hymn (harmonized hymn) b/c it is sacred and the same music is repeated over and over for changing verses of that sacred text * Josquin Desprez: Kyrie from Pange lingua Mass * Genre: Kyrie from a late Renaissance Mass

* Texture: 4 part polyphony; imitative polyphony * Ensemble: a cappella; 4 part choir; SATB
* Text: Ancient, sacred Greek prayer (only part of Mass in Greek); First part of Mass Ordinary
Baroque Period
* Henry Purcell: “Thy hand Belinda” from Dido and Aeneas, Act III final scene. * Libretto is an abbreviated English-language adaptation (by librettist Nahum Tate) of an episode from the Aeneid, the Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy, where he became the mythical ancestor of the Romans. Aeneas and his men are shipwrecked at Carthage on the northern shore of Africa. Dido, the Queen of Carthage, and Aeneas fall in love, but Aeneas cannot forget that the gods have commanded him to continue his journey until he reaches Italy (where it has been foretold that he will found a great empire, Rome). A much as he hates to hurt his love, the Queen Dido, he knows that he must leave and continue his quest. He leaves, as heroes must. * In her grief, Dido decides she cannot live with her grief and slashes her wrists. She then sings the moving recitative “Thy hand, Belinda,” and the aria that follows (a Lament aria), which is the culminating point in the opera, followed by a final chorus * Homophonic

* Antonio Vivaldi: Violin Concerto in G, La stravanganza, op. 4 no. 2, first and second movements http://youtu.be/WftbiFpZszU * First movement: Spirito e non presto (spirited but not presto) The first movement of this work is a RITORNELLO FORM: the music played by the orchestra appears both at the beginning, end, and several times during the movement. This ritornello is alternated with the SOLOS, played by the featured violin soloist. * Second movement: Largo (slowly) This movement is a THEME & VARIATIONS FORM, which means that the melody (theme) heard at the beginning is followed by alternative versions of that same melody. * Johann Sebastian...
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