The final is not cumulative
Chapters 2-5, 7, 9. No supplemental readings. Nothing on reactance.
1. “Pure persuasion”: Intentional, measured by its effectiveness. Obvious clear cases of persuasion. Relies on language and symbolic action. Involves two or more people. Noncoercive.
2. What is the relationship of persuasion to coercion:
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. Persuasion is the act of changing a persons attitude or behavior towards something by using spoken or written word to convey information.
3. The Gass & Seiter model of persuasion:
Context determines the nature of the persuasion process.
intentionality (distinguishes social influence from persuasion), Effects: might be effective persuasion method, but persuasion may not actually occur. OR might be an ineffective persuasion method but persuasion may occur. problem with effects is it can be viewed as linear (source to receiver) but it is simultaneous exchange. Free will/Conscious awareness: vital characteristic of persuasion, or else it is coercion. coercion: rewards, incentive, flattery, threats, etc. Symbolic action: means/channel of persuasion.
Interpersonal v. Intrapersonal: self or other persuasion.
4. asynchronous persuasion:
Communicator… “back and forth”
Synchronous communication refers ot the simultaneous sending and receive of messages, such as face-to-face interactions. Asynchronous communication refers to back-and-forth process that involves delay, such as email or texting.
5. psychological inconsistency:
Cognitive Dissonance:Theory that inconsistencies between thoughts, feelings, and behavior create an unpleasant mental state (cognitive dissonance) that motivates mental efforts to resolve them Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by changing thoughts, feelings, or behavior in order to make them consistent Difficult choices can induce cognitive dissonance
¨Cognitive dissonance results from challenges or threats to people’s sense of themselves as rational, moral, and competent *
6. What determines whether a source possesses credibility:
Credibility- judgments made by a perceiver concerning believability of communicator. How to enhance credibility:
Prepare thoroughly. Never just “wing it”. Budget time effectively, anticipate questions. Cite evidence and source qualifications.
State your background and expertise.
Build trust by identifying with your audience. (Emphasize similarities) Display goodwill by showing that you care. (Be genuine/authentic)(Pick topic that you truly care about).
7. when does credibility tend to exert a greater influence on receivers: Expertise: Competence- persuader has knowledge and skills.
Trustworthiness: Character and integrity- Persuader seen as honest and reliable. Goodwill: Perceived caring- Persuader seems to have genuine interest in you.
8. What decreases children's vulnerability to being persuaded by television advertisements? Adult influence
If you interact with children during ads, you can increase their ability to critically examine the ads and provide them with a better understanding of the nature and purpose of advertising. Studies show when adults made factual comments (i.e. “Those ads are dumb. Those ads aren’t telling the truth. These toys aren’t fun) during advertisements for toys, children who heard these comments were less persuaded by ads. Getting Older
As children get older they become more susceptible to peer pressure, but less susceptible to persuasive appeal of ads.
9. According to Reinforcement Expectancy Theory: Based on the central premise that human behavior is driven by the need to gain rewarding stimuli and eliminate aversive ones.
10. Relationship between intelligence and persuasion: People with higher IQ’s are harder to persuade because they are able to...