CHAPTER NO.| TITLE| PAGE NO.|
| ABSTRACT| |
| LIST OF TABLES| |
| LIST OF FIGURES| |
1.| INTRODUCTION| 1|
2.| THE PROJECT DESIGN| |
| 2.1 SCHEMATIC DESIGN| |
| 2.2 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS| |
| 2.1 PIC PROGRAMMING| |
| 2.11 FLOWCHART| |
| 2.12 C CODE| |
3.| DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION| |
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Crystal Information Table8
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure0.1 Analog & Digital Signals2
Figure0.2 Example of 18 pin PIC4
Figure0.1 Schematic Design5
Figure 0.3Crystal Circuit7
Figure 0.4 Breadboard Connection8
Figure0.5 Program Flowchart10
Figure 0.6 connecting the PIC to the Programmer12
Figure 0.7 Burning the HEX file12
Figure 0.8 Programming Successful13
Figure 0.9 Connecting the Circuit14
In contrast to analog signal, a digital signal exists only at specific levels or states and changes its level in discrete steps. An analog signal and digital signal are illustrated in the following figure
Figure0.1 Analog & Digital Signals
Most analog signals have only two states: high and low. A system using two states signals allows the application of Boolean logic, and binary number representations, which form the foundation of the digital devices. Digital devices are categorized according to their function as combinational logic or sequential logic devices. The difference between two categories is based on the signal timing, for sequential logic devices the timing or sequencing history, of the input signals plays a role in determining the output, but for combinational logic devices the output depend only on the instantaneous values of inputs. Integrated circuits (IC) are consisting of combinational logic circuits or sequential logic circuits, and they are considered as hardware since they are hardwired to a circuit board. Microprocessors are considered a very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) chip that contains many digital circuits and performs arithmetic, logic, communication, and control functions, moreover they are programmable logic devices reads binary data from a storage device called memory, and then when this device been connected to I/O devices it’s called microcomputer. When this microcomputer is placed in a single chip it’s called microcontroller, which can be defined as single chip microcomputer, consist of central processing unit (CPU), memory, timers and counters, analog to digital converters (ADC), digital to analog converters (DAC), serial ports, interrupt logic, oscillator circuitry and many more functional blocks on chip. Microcontrollers are used in wide array applications including home appliances, entertainment equipment, telecommunication equipment, automobiles, trucks, airplanes, toys, and offices equipment. The focus here is on the PIC (Peripheral interface controller) microcontroller, which is manufactured by Microchip Technology, due to its low cost, abundant information resources, wide availability in market, and easy to use. The PIC microcontroller architecture is based on a modified Harvard RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) instruction set with dual-bus architecture, providing fast and flexible design with an easy migration path from only 6 pins to 80 pins, and from 384 bytes to 128 Kbytes of program memory. Although there are massive numbers of PIC models, the family can be divided into three main groups, which are: * 12-bit instruction word (e.g; 12C5XX, 16C5X).
* 14-bit instruction word (e.g; 16F8X, 16F87X).
* 16-bit instruction word (e.g; 17C7XX, 18C2XX).
This mini project is a scrolling LED project using one of the most popular PIC microcontrollers; it’s the PIC16F84, which is a low-cost 8-bit Microcontroller, supports 13 I/O digital lines simple architecture, less amount of instructions.
Figure0.2 Example of 18 pin PIC
THE PROJECT DESIGN
The circuit was...