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Subject: MB 0050- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Assignment No.: Set 1
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Subject code: MB0050
subject NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Note: Each Question carries 10 marks
Q1)a. Differentiate between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales, with an example of each. b. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research?
a. Types of scales:
Ans) There are four types of data that may be gathered in social research, each one adding more to the next. Thus ordinal data is also nominal, and so on.
The name 'Nominal' comes from the Latin nomen, meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system. The only thing a nominal scale does is to say that items being measured have something in common, although this may not be described. Nominal items may have numbers assigned to them. This may appear ordinal but is not -- these are used to simplify capture and referencing. Nominal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as 'employees'.
The number pinned on a sports person.
A set of countries.
Items on an ordinal scale are set into some kind of order by their position on the scale. This may indicate such as temporal position, superiority, etc. The order of items is often defined by assigning numbers to them to show their relative position. Letters or other sequential symbols may also be used as appropriate. Ordinal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as '1956 marathon runners'. You cannot do arithmetic with ordinal numbers -- they show sequence only.
The first, third and fifth person in a race.
Pay bands in an organization, as denoted by A, B, C and D.
Interval data (also sometimes called integer) is measured along a scale in which each position is equidistant from one another. This allows for the distance between two pairs to be equivalent in some way. This is often used in psychological experiments that measure attributes along an arbitrary scale between two extremes. Interval data cannot be multiplied or divided.
My level of happiness, rated from 1 to 10.
Temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit.
In a ratio scale, numbers can be compared as multiples of one another. Thus one person can be twice as tall as another person. Important also, the number zero has meaning. Thus the difference between a person of 35 and a person 38 is the same as the difference between people who are 12 and 15. A person can also have an age of zero. Ratio data can be multiplied and divided because not only is the difference between 1 and 2 the same as between 3 and 4, but also that 4 is twice as much as 2. Interval and ratio data measure quantities and hence are quantitative. Because they can be measured on a scale, they are also called scale data.
A person's weight
The number of pizzas I can eat before fainting
b. Purpose of measurement in social science.
One of the primary purposes of classifying variables according to their level or scale of measurement is to facilitate the choice of a statistical test used to analyze the data. There are certain statistical analyses which are only meaningful for data which are measured at certain measurement scales. For example, it is generally inappropriate to compute the mean for Nominal variables. Suppose you had 20 subjects, 12 of which were male, and 8 of which were female. If you assigned males a value of '1' and females a value of '2', could you compute the mean sex of subjects in your sample? It is possible to compute a mean value, but how meaningful would that be? How would you interpret a mean sex of 1.4?...
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