Manga are comics created in Japan or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a long, complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art. In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, suspense, detective, horror, and business/commerce, among others. Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry representing a 406 billion yen market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion ($5.5 billion) in 2009. Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience including Europe, the United States Canada, France and many other places. Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white, although some full-colour manga exist. In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon. A manga artist typically works with a few assistants in a small studio, and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centring on previously existing live-action or animated films. The first anime published was broadcasted in 1917.
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