LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
1. Top Level of Management
It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the highest authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. The role of the top management can be summarized as follows - a. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc. b. It prepares strategic plans, policies and objectives for the enterprise. c. It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers. d. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. e. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
2. Middle Level of Management
The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their role can be emphasized as - f. They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management. g. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level. h. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department. i. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management. j. They evaluate performance of junior managers.
k. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.
3. Lower Level of Management
Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include - l. Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.
m. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities. n. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production. o. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers. p. They help to solve the grievances of the workers.
q. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.
r. They are responsible for providing training to the workers. s. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers. t. They motivate workers.
Management is a challenging job. It requires certain skills to accomplish such a challenge. Thus, essential skills which every manager needs for doing a better management are called as Managerial Skills.
According to Professor Katz, there are three managerial skills, viz.,
1. Conceptual Skills,
2. Human Relations Skills, and
3. Technical Skills.
All managers require above three managerial skills. However, the degree (amount) of these skills required varies (changes) from levels of management and from an organisation to the organisation.
The above picture or diagram shows the managerial skills which are required by...