LESSON-15 LEASE FINANCING, HIRE PURCHASE AND FACTORING
15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Introduction Objectives Concept of Lease Financing Meaning of Lease Financing Importance of Lease Financing Types of Lease Agreements 15.5.1 Financial lease 15.5.2 Operating lease 15.5.3 Sale and lease back 15.5.4 Leveraged leasing 15.5.5 Direct leasing Advantages of leasing Leasing in India Concept & Meaning of Hire purchase Difference between Lease Financing and Hire Purchase NSIC & Hire Purchase Factoring 15.11.1 Factoring procedure 15.11.2 Merits Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions Further Readings
15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11
15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15
In order to start and sustain a business one needs finance. In the unit one on feasibility study, you have already seen the process of estimating financial requirements. The process involved (a) making a list of all the assets (b) identifying the sources of supply (c) estimating the cost of acquisition when the assets are to be acquired on outright basis. Then investment requirements as well as entrepreneur’s fear will increase. To scare away the entrepreneur’s fear, the emphasis should be given to resources and not to the ownership. In this unit we intend to familiarize you with some important financial innovations i.e., leasing, hire purchase and factoring.
After going through this unit you should be able to • Describe the meaning of leasing • Explain the role and importance of lease financing in economic development of a country • Distinguish between the various types of leases • Describe the meaning of hire purchase • Distinguish between leasing and hire purchase • Describe the meaning of factoring
15.2 CONCEPT 0F LEASE FINANCING
Lease financing denotes procurement of assets through lease. The subject of leasing falls in the category of finance. Leasing has grown as a big industry in the USA and UK and spread to other countries during the present century. In India, the concept was pioneered in 1973 when the First Leasing Company was set up in Madras and the eighties have seen a rapid growth of this business. Lease as a concept involves a contract whereby the ownership, financing and risk taking of any equipment or asset are separated and shared by two or more parties. Thus, the lessor may finance and lessee may accept the risk through the use of it while a third party may own it. Alternatively the lessor may finance and own it while the lessee enjoys the use of it and bears the risk. There are various combinations in which the above characteristics are shared by the lessor and lessee.
15.3 MEANING 0F LEASE FINANCING
A lease transaction is a commercial arrangement whereby an equipment owner or Manufacturer conveys to the equipment user the right to use the equipment in return for a rental. In other words, lease is a contract between the owner of an asset (the lessor) and its user (the lessee) for the right to use the asset during a specified period in return for a mutually agreed periodic payment (the lease rentals). The important feature of a lease contract is separation of the ownership of the asset from its usage. Lease financing is based on the observation made by Donald B. Grant: “Why own a cow when the milk is so cheap? All you really need is milk and not the cow.”
15.4 IMPORTANCE 0F LEASE FINANCING
Leasing industry plays an important role in the economic development of a country by providing money incentives to lessee. The lessee does not have to pay the cost of asset at the time of signing the contract of leases. Leasing contracts are more flexible so lessees can structure the leasing contracts according to their needs for finance. The lessee can also pass on the risk of obsolescence to the lessor by acquiring those
appliances, which have high technological obsolescence. To day, most of us are familiar with leases of houses, apartments, offices, etc.
15.5 TYPES OF...
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