Lab Practical Study Guide

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LAB PRACTICAL 2

* Skin
* Comprised of all 4 main tissue types
* Epithelial
* Connective
* Muscular
* Nervous
* Part of the integumentary system
* Function:
* Protection
* Body temperature regulation
* Vitamin D synthesis
* Sensation to touch, pressure, pain and temperature * 2 main regions:
* epidermis
* 5 strata
* corneum
* top layer, cornified layer, layers of dead cells and soft keratin * lucidum
* granulosum
* spinosum
* basale
* deepest layer, contain melanocytes
* stores melanin which contributes to skin color *
*
*
* dermis
* dense irregular connective tissue
* fibroblasts
* adipose cells
* macrophages
* collagen
* elastic reticular fibers
* 2 layers:
* papillary layer
* small projections = papillae extend into epidermis = foot/hand prints *
* reticular layer
* (hypodermis basal layer)
* joins these 2 layers to underlying muscles and bones * long loose connective tissue
* most of body fat is found in this region
* sweat gland (coiled)
* found in the dermis
* extend to the epidermis by means of a duct and pore * aid in excretion of wastes and help regulate body temperature * sebaceous (oil) glands
* found in dermis
* associates with hair follicles (usually attached and lumpy) * produce sebum
* lipid-rich substance helps keep the hair follicle soft * lubricates and protects the skin and reduces moisture loss * Hair follicle
* Extend from the deeper regions of the dermis
* Composed of hard keratin
* Arrector pilli
* Group of smooth muscle cells
* Enable hair to “stand on end” when cold or frightened * Long strand of muscle attached to hair
* Specialized sensory structures
* In dermis
* 2 types:
* Meissner’s corpuscles
* Sense light touch
* Smaller and closer to top
* Pacinian corpuscles
* Sense deep pressure
* Bigger and at bottom
* Free nerve endings provide sensory input for pain, heat and cold

* Body plane vs orientation
* Orientations indicate a direction relative to a body part * Ventral/anterior front of body
* Dorsal/posterior back of body
* Cranial/superior toward the head
* Caudal/Inferior toward tail/rear
* Medial toward the midline
* Lateral toward side of body
* Proximal close to point of attachment
* Distal father from point of attachment
* Body plane divides the body into different sections * Coronal (frontal) divides body into front and back. Lengthwise plane * Transverse horizontal that divides body into upper and lower half * Sagittal off center longitudinal plane that creates unequal left and right halves * Midsagittal longitudinal plane alone the midline that divides the body into symmetrical left and right halves * Female pig = urogenital opening at but, umbilical cord out

* Digestive System
* Amylase
* Produced by salivary glands, begins starch digestion in mouth * Starch amylase maltose and glucose
* Iodine test , benedicts reagent
* Positive = blue black (starch present) ; negative = yellow * Pepsin
* Protein...
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