- Japanese foreign policy 1937-41
Between 1937-1941 Japan had adopted an expansionist foreign policy which was seen as a threat to the US possessions in the pacific. Japans policy was aggressive and seeked expansion at any cost. “Japan would not adopt an aggressive, expansionist foreign policy.” P Kiem
In 1937 Japan invaded China.
- Advance down the coast of Shanghai in August, which to America is an attack on their sphere of influence. (Open Door Policy).
- Catalyst for Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech. “America actively engages in the search for peace.
Japans intentions and nature in China was clear through atrocities committed in Nanking where 20,000 people were raped, murdered and a third of the city destroyed.
- Japan started a policy of rearmament:
o Military growth in Cabinet, “Political brakes stripped, war machine could roll on and on.” Lenaga
o 70% of 1938 budget spent on military. Quasi-wartime economy.
- Japan starts Oil negotiations with Indo-China (Dutch East Indies) so they are not reliant on USA
o Demand for oil increases, 4.5 mil to 22 mil barrels annually.
o 40% Dutch East Indies output. Japan granted 14.5 mil
- New Order in East Asia
o November 38-Asia for the Asians- decolonise from European and US control
o Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere-June 1940
o FDR implemented Export control Act in 1940 to limit arms supply to Jap.
- Annexation of Northern Indochina Sept 1940
o Japan expanded into Indochina eliminating allied rail supply route to China (halting 10,000 tons of material from reaching Chiang Kai-Shek
- Tripartite Pact
o Japan signed a pact with Germany and Italy
o Formalises Japans opposition to US and Britain.
- Soviet Union Non-Aggression Pact-April 1941
- Japanese expansion into southern Indochina-July 41
o US responded by implementing an oil embargo and...