It Essentials

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IT Essentials – Hand Out

Introduction to Basic Computer
What is a system?
System is a combination of components working together.

What is a computer system?
Computer System is a group of elements performing together to process data.

What is a computer?
Computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve and process data. Three Components of a Computer
1. Hardware refers to the physical components of the computer system. 2. Software is a computer program.
3. Peopleware is the one who uses the computer.

Classification of Computers
1. Mainframes. These are characterized by large internal memory storage and a comprehensive range of software and peripheral equipment that may be connected.
2. Minicomputers. Essentially minicomputers are scaled down versions of their mainframe brothers. They do not introduce any revolutionary hardware and software techniques and therefore the distinction between a mainframe and a mini-computer becomes blurred. 3. Microcomputers. A microcomputer is a computer with a microprocessor as its processor. A microprocessor is an integrated circuit, which can accept data and instructions from external devices.

Classification of Hardware

1. Peripheral Devices is any external device attached to the central portion of the computer. Examples of peripherals include keyboards, monitors, printers, modems, and mice. 2. Central Processing Unit is that part of a computer that performs calculations and controls the other parts of the computer. In a PC, it is usually made up of several parts located on the motherboard. These include a master microprocessor chip and a portion of the motherboard system logic.

3. Mass Storage System is where you put the data you need immediately at hand but which would not fit into memory. Designed to hold megabytes and retrieve them at a the realm of magnetic disks, but other technologies and formats now serve specialized purposes and await their chances to move into the mainstream. Personal computers use varieties of mass storage. In most PCs, the primary mass storage mediums are the hard disk drive and, to a lesser extent, the floppy disk drive.

Types of Peripheral Devices
1. Input Devices are used to put data into your program such as keyboard, mouse, penlight, scanner and joystick.
INFORMATICS INSTITUTE

Introduction to Basic Computer

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IT Essentials – Hand Out

2. Output Devices are used to display and generate information such as monitor, printer, and speaker. 3. Input and Output Devices are used both for entering data into and extracting data from a computer such as disk drive, CD-ROM drive, touch screen, modem and MIDI.

Parts of the Central Processing Unit
1. Motherboard. Motherboard is the printed circuit board in the computer system that holds the microprocessor, additional processor chips, the BIOS ROM, expansion slots, and the wir es that composes the bus.

2. Memory. Memory is the internal storage area in the computer. 3. Microprocessor. Microprocessor is an integrated circuit that contains an input/output bus driver, an arithmetic-logic unit, some registers, and an instruction decoder/ control unit to direct the operation of the other parts.

4. Coprocessors. Coprocessors are additional computer processing units, which handle specific tasks in conjunction with the CPU.
5. Expansion Slots. Expansion Slots are portals that allow new signals to enter the computer and directly react its circuitry. Expansion slots allow new features and enhancements to be added to the system and enable the quick and easy alternation of certain prerequisites, such as video adapters. 6. Basic Input/Output System. Basic Input/Output System is a set of programs used by the operating system and application programs to activate a computer’s hardware. Part of the BIOS is located in ROMs both on the motherboard and on option cards.

7. Power Supply. As it operates, the power supply of your PC attempts to make the direct current...
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