BAGUIO CENTRAL UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE EDUCATION
(MWF) (10:30 – 11:30)
THEORIES AND PROPONENTS OF CRIMES
The scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, including its causes, prevention, types, consequences, and punishment, and its relationship to other forms of deviant behavior such as alcohol addiction or drug abuse emerged in the 19th century as part of a humanizing movement in which people tried to understand the nature of crime and to devise more effective methods of deterrence and treatment. In the mid-19th century, CRIMINOLOGY arose as a social philosophers thought t crime and concepts of law. Over time, several schools of thoughts have developed.
Furthermore, back in the Medieval Period, many unorganized and ephemeral explanations of crimes were stated and accepted. They were known as the SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLGY or SCHOOL OF THOUGHT OF CRIMINOLOGY. They offered explanations to crime causation by formulating a theory which now serves as the basis of our study in CRIMINOLOGY.
THE MOST PROMINENT ONES ARE THE FOLLOWING:
* Classical School of Criminology
* Neo-classical School
* Italian and Positivist school
* Cartographic/Geographical School
* Socialist School of Thought
* Psychiatric School of Thought
* Socio-Social-Psycho School
Virtually, many book writers on CRIMINOLOGY offer a summary of the main schools of criminological thought, in chronological order, starting with the classical work of BECARRIA and ending with a chapter on contemporary or post-modernist theory. It is difficult to recall dates, names of proponents and the fundamental theories they are espousing. To aid memory in recalling events and people, the author prepared a table for this purpose.
THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL
The CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY is composed of thinkers of crime and punishment in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Its most prominent members were CESARE BECARRIA and JEREMY BENTHAM who shared the idea that criminal behavior could be understood and controlled as an outcome of a “human nature”. Human beings were believed to be HEDONISTIC, acting in terms of self-interest, but, rational and capable of considering which course of action would benefit him. A well-ordered state therefore, construct laws and punishment (Social Contract of Man) in such a way that peace and non-criminal actions abide in the society. Established punishment are strategies (theory of deterrence) to keep man from further depredation.
The criminal law of 18th century, specifically in Europe was generally administered with incredible corruption, arbitrariness and cruelty. Voltaire prepared a way for reform by publicizing the weakness of the criminal law, but it remained for BECARRIA to demonstrate what the faults were and what the remedies might be. BECARRIA advocated the restriction of judges in providing penalties and believed that penalties must be based on the calculated harm of the given crime to society. The theory contended that men originally were w/out government but later created a State through a “Social Contract” by w/c men surrendered some of their social liberties in return for the security that the government provides them – health, education, etc. Laws of the State became a means of preventing men from encroachment at other man’s freedom. Punishment became the means for dealing with such encroachments.
What is HEDONISM? Hedonism refers to pleasure seeking. It is the choice to do things that give the greatest amount of pleasure while avoiding thing that are painful.
What is Hedonistic Psychology? It explains that “man governs his behavior by considerations of pleasures and pains, the pleasure anticipated from a particular act may be balanced against the pains and pleasures anticipated from the same act, or the algebraic sum of pleasures and...
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