Intro to China and Japan Review

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1.Jiedushi(节度使)
regional military governors in China. Originally set up to counter external threats, the jiedushi were given enormous power, including the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes, and pass their titles on hereditarily. Powerful jiedushi eventually eclipsed the power of the central government; the jiedushi retained their powers and quickened the disintegration of the Tang Dynasty. (618-907)

2.Fanzhen (藩镇)
a governmental system involving administration through regional governors (jiedushi). The term fanzhen literally means "buffer town", and refers to the system of settling troops in strategic locations along the empire's border areas, which during the Tang Dynasty came under the control of provincial military governors, or jiedushi. As control of these fanzhen devolved from central authority into the hands of the local leaders, they at times became powerful enough to threaten the imperial Chinese central government during the Tang Dynasty, particularly during and after the An Shi Rebellion

3.Yang Guifei (杨贵妃)
the beloved consort of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang during his later years.

4.An Lushan (安禄山)
rebelled against the Tang Dynasty in China.
He rose to prominence defending the northeastern border from the Khitan and other northern threats. He was also cunning and flattering, so he got the support of Xuanzong Emperor and Yang Guifei. The promotion of Yang Guozhong to Chancellor precipitated the catastrophic An Lushan Rebellion, which significantly weakened the Tang dynasty

5.Huang Chao (黄巢)
the leader of the Huang Chao Rebellion, which weakened Tang dynasy,  dissolved within a few decades after the rebellion, and the empire broke up into competing states of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period.

6. Wang Xianzhi
a major agrarian rebel during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang, whose rebellion, while failing, along with those of his one-time allyHuang Chao, began a series of rebellions that led to Tang Dynasty's disintegration.

7. Zhu Wen
a Jiedushi at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the major agrarian rebel Huang Chao's state of Qi and overthrew Tang in 907, established the Later Liang Dynasty as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

8.Go-Toba (后鸟羽天皇)
 the 82nd emperor of Japan, whose political power was limited. In his later life, he staged a rebellion in an attempt to reclaim the throne and overthrow the Kamakura shogunate. This is known as the Jōkyū War after the era in which it occurred

9.Jokyu War (承久之乱)
was fought in Japan between the forces of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and those of the Hōjō clan, regents of the Kamakura shogunate, whom the retired emperor was trying to overthrow. The result was Shogunate victorious(powerful+); Retired emperors exiled.

10.Go-Daigo (后醍醐天皇)
was the 96th emperor of Japan

11.Brocade guards(Jinyi Wei)
the imperial military secret police of the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty and were bound to serving the emperor only. The Jinyi Wei was founded by the Hongwu Emperor in 1368 to serve as his personal bodyguards and it developed into a military organization the following year. They were authorized to overrule judicial proceedings in prosecutions, with full autonomy granted in arresting, interrogating and punishing anyone, including nobles and the emperor's relatives. The Jinyi Wei were also tasked with collecting military intelligence on the enemy and participated in battle planning stages.

12. Grand Secretariat(内阁)
the highest institution in the Ming imperial government. It first took shape after Emperor Hongwu abolished the office of Chancellor in 1380 and gradually evolved into an effective coordinating organ. However, since they screened documents submitted to the emperor from all governmental agencies, and had the power of drafting suggested rescripts for the emperor, some senior Grand Secretaries were able to...
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