Interwar Period

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This part of reading starts with the giving overal knowledge about which countries have voices over the region. In the 19th century and the onset of the 20th century three big authority were controlling the Middle East. These were Egypt, Ottoman Empire and Iran. After the peace treaties and establishing mandates a new state system emerged. And this let division of Ottoman Empire to 6 different states. These are Republic of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Jordan. There were also another states like Saudi Arabia and Yemen. In the interwar era only Turkey, Iran Saudi Arabia and Yemen could use thier independencies. Only Turkey was able to pursuit its own domestic and foreign policies from 1920s to the end of WW2. The Author of the book Cleveland states that the interwar era in the Arab world directly related with the domination of Anglo-France. England was directly controlling the Egypt and indirectly the other 5 states, emerged from the Ottoman Empire, with the France. Cleveland continues with that the League of Nations accepted the division of Former Ottoman Arab provinces into new states and give permission to the France and Britain to rule them in a mandatory status. And author explains the reason of this: the belief of these states can not rule themselves and they need some countries to help them. This is the exact example of the Orientalism. He mentions a similarity of the WW1 and WW2. Just as the WW1 loosend Ottoman Empire’s affectiveness over Arab provinces, the WW2 accelerated the end of Anglo-France domination on the Middle East and paved a way to proclamination of independences of all big states in the region. Than he starts to talk about countries in the Middle East. In Turkey abolishing the sultanate after the WW1 was an end of the ottoman political age but this also led to an Turkish political era which provided to select caliphate of the Islam by election. And continues with the identification the Ataturk’s six principles. So what about...
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