Ch.8 International Cooperation:
International Organizations, Alliances, and Coalitions
1. Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord
- World Government
- Alliances, coalitions, and international organizations
- Collective security
Managing and controlling conflicts
3. Functional collaboration in specialized agencies
Other international organizations and regimes
In this chapter, the author mainly examine various means of international cooperation; international organizations, alliances, and coalitions. Reaction toward the Iraq’s invasion to Kuwait can be shown as one of examples of international cooperation. Multinational coalition of military force and collective security by different countries against to the threat to the world’s oil supply cost so many lives of soldiers, but still represented as an important precedent of international cooperation.
*Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord
International anarchy makes people of some or all states vulnerable. ( security concern boost economic and military capabilities
Or collaborate with other states for the same goal
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries consists of 11 oil producing states. They coordinate their oil production policies to stabilize oil market revenue. OPEC has been more successful in cooperation than other commodity cartel.
※North America countries international organization
In addition to NATO, the US and Canada collaborated militarily with NORAD organization. Early warning devices against bomb or missile toward Canada or the US have been managed by NORAD. Moreover, commercial cooperation among Canada, the US, and Mexico established NAFTA.
|Complete Harmony |Zone of | |Zone of |Complete Discord | | |International | |International | | | |Cooperation | |Conflicts | | |← Increasingly positive activities |Middle |Increasingly negative activities→ | | |Zone | | |Extensive |Working issues|Coordinating |Consulting |Separating |Working at |Obstructing actions | |collaboration |jointly | |Notifying |And |cross purposes|Conflict | | | | | |Withdrawing | | |
Along the spectrum between complete harmony and discord are seven categories to present the degree of positive or negative interaction across states and NGOs.
Cooperation among states does not always seek ‘the common good’, instead they cooperate to maximizes their benefits. Moreover, it does not necessarily toward positive goal, they sometimes join together to conquer some countries such as the Germans and Soviets or cooperate to exploit some weaker states economically.
International cooperation can be short-term deal or longer effort. In this chapter, the author is interested in repeated long-term cooperation which is defined as ‘ a pattern of behavior that has become formally or informally organized and reflects certain rules and norms of behavior’.
※ Regional International Organization
Europe: the most highly institutionalized set of international organization such as the European Union (EU). The Americas : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Central American Free Trade Agreement, Organization...
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