AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT OF YOUR ACADEMIC WRITING IS TO INCLUDE REFERENCES TO THE THEORIES, INFORMATION, CONCEPTS AND/OR MATERIALS YOU HAVE USED. THIS BOOKLET EXPLAINS HOW TO REFERENCE CORRECTLY WITH EASY TO FOLLOW EXAMPLES.
PAGE 2 1. WHAT IS REFERENCING? 2. WHY SHOULD I INCLUDE REFERENCES IN MY WORK? 3 3. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? 4. HOW DO I REFERENCE MY WORK? 4 5. WHAT DO I NEED TO INCLUDE IN A REFERENCE? 6. REFERENCING USING THE HARVARD SYSTEM 5 7. CITING REFERENCES IN THE TEXT 7.1. Citing the author 7.2. Using direct quotes 7.3. Citing more than one author 7.4. Citing three or more authors 7.5. Citing a chapter or section 6 7.6. Citing a work without an author 7.7. Citing several works by the same author written in the same year 7.8. Citing secondary sources 7 7.9. Citing online sources 8 8. WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY OR LIST OF REFERENCES 8.1. Printed books 8.1.1. Reference to a book with one author 8.1.2. Reference to a book with two authors 8.1.3. Reference to a book with three or more authors 8.1.4. Reference to a chapter or section 9 8.2. Electronic books (e-books) 8.3. Print journals and newspapers 10 8.4. Electronic journals (e-journals) and newspapers 8.4.1. E-journal articles accessed via full text database 11 8.4.2. E-journal articles accessed via a website on the open Internet 8.5. Reports 8.6. Conference papers 12 8.7. Legal sources 8.8. Websites, web pages and PDF documents 13 8.8.1 What if I can’t find the author or date for a website? 8.9. Online images 8.10. DVDs and videocassettes 14 9. OTHER INFORMATION
1. WHAT IS REFERENCING?
2. WHY SHOULD I INCLUDE REFERENCES IN MY WORK?
3. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?
4. HOW DO I REFERENCE MY WORK?
If you are using direct quotations, ideas/ theories or information from other people’s work in your academic writing, you need to acknowledge the source. This is known as ‘referencing’ or ‘citing’.
You should include references in order to: • acknowledge that the work/idea belongs to another person • provide evidence of your own research • illustrate a particular point • support an argument or theory • allow others to locate the resources you have used. And most importantly to: • avoid accusations of plagiarism.
Plagiarism is taking the words, ideas or work of other people and passing them off as your own. In the UK, plagiarism is considered a form of cheating. The University takes cases of plagiarism very seriously. If you are caught plagiarising you will face disciplinary procedures which could ultimately result in your expulsion from the University. In order not to risk plagiarising the work of others, you must reference. The best advice is, if in doubt cite. For further details about plagiarism and how to avoid it see the information on academic conduct available via your tutor, school registry or the current student web pages.
Your references should be consistent and follow the same format. Various systems are in use for citing references, but most departments at the University use the Harvard system. Check your course or module handbook to familiarise yourself with the specific system your subject area uses. If you are unsure, ask your tutor before handing in your assignment. Failure to follow your subject area’s specific system may lose you marks.
5. WHAT DO I NEED TO INCLUDE IN A REFERENCE?
6. REFERENCING USING THE HARVARD SYSTEM
7. CITING REFERENCES IN THE TEXT
References consist of certain details about the source you are using. It is a good idea to make a note of all the relevant details whilst conducting your research. This will save you time finding and collecting these details later on. The details you should note during your research are: For books: • Authors/editors • Year of publication • Title of book • Edition where one is given • Page numbers (for direct quotes) • Chapter title, author and page numbers (if chapters...