Industrial Revolution Study Guide

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* The Industrial Revolution Study Guide
Pre-Revolution Situation
- Early 1700s= England covered in small farmsàlandowners bought small farms=big farms formedàallowed farmers make bigger fields - New Farming Techniques:
* Seed Drill, crop rotation, experiments with animal reproduction àincrease in food supplyàmore people fed for less $ à increase in populationàsurplus labor for new factoriesàmore people with money/more demand for goods Where did it start and why?

- Started in Britain (UK)
- Britain had ample minerals like coal/iron
- Investments put into construction of roads, bridges, canals Jethro Tull
- Invented the seed drill
* To make sure seeds can germinate
Richard Trevithick
- Pioneered 1st steam machine powered locomotive on industrial rail line in S. Wales * Pulled 10 tons of ore/70 people @ 5mph
Effects on Society
- Urbanization: city development and movement of people to cities * In Britain
- Life in Cities:
* Factories built in population centers=attracted more people * Double in size of population
* Depressing
* No sanitation codes, no city planning
* No drains, no garbage collection
* Families lived in one room
* Disease widespread
* Life expectancy: 17yrs for working people in city, 38 in rural areas - Working Conditions:
* Factory owners wanted to keep machines running as much as possible * Average day: 14hrs, 6 days
* Work never changed
* Dangerous
* Loss of limbs
* No gov welfare program to aid injured workers
* Coal mine work made people lived 10 yrs less than other jobs - Factories
- James Watt
* Scottish engineer created engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3x as quickly as other machines * Enlarged possibilities of steam engines
* Steam power could now be applied to spinning/weaving cotton * Engines fired by coal didn’t need to be by water=flexibility of location Spread to the Continent
- Why did Europe Lag Behind?
* Lack of goods or problems with river transit
* Toll stations/customs barriers increased cost in goods * Guild restrictions (what/who produce)
* Different business mentality
* Dislike of competition
* High regard for family security
* Unwilling to take risks
* Upheaval with wars of French rev/Napoleonic eras
* Continental system disrupted communication=hard for continent to keep up with new technology * Wars caused problems with trade/created political instability - Continental Differences:

* Continental countries borrowed techniques/practices from Britain * Role of government:
* Paid for tech ed programs
* Exempted foreign industrial equipment from import taxes * Financed factories
* Helped finance transportation improvements
* Set up tariffs on imported goods
- Joint Stock Investment:
* Starting with less expensive machines, Britain able to industrialize through private capital * Advanced industrial machines required larger amounts of capital * JS Investment banks:

* Accepted savings from depositorsàdeveloped large capital resourcesàinvested on large scale in railroads, mining, heavy industry Class Tension
- Rev made some people rich while some still poor(split)
* Factory owners, shippers, merchants made big $
- Middle class of Britain
* Skilled workers, professionals, wealthy farmers
* Upperclass middle class: gov. employees, doctors, lawyers, factory managers * Lower middle class: factory supervisors, skilled workers - Working class saw little improvement in their lives, many jobs disappeared as factors took over Labor Unions (association of workers in same trade, formed to help members secure better wages/working conditions) - Formed by skilled workers

- Role:
*...
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