Impact of Flexible Work Schedule on Employees’ Productivity

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Introduction
The business organizations have been using flexible work arrangements for many years now, one of the reasons advocate their usage is that flexible work arrangements help the employees to better balance between their work and life needs (Almer, Cohen, & Single, 2003) . Also organizations that provide flexible work arrangements are more attractive to applicants and better in retaining its employees than other organizations that not offer such arrangements (Rau & Hyland, 2002; Bevan, Dench, Tamkin, & Cummings, 1999). In our study we will focus on flexible work schedules as a sort of flexible work arrangements. The objective of this study is to understand the impact of schedule work schedules on the employees’ performance and if the job type is affecting the relationship between the flexible work schedule and employees’ performance.

Literature Review

Definition of flexible working hours

Flexible working hours is a way of arranging working hours to allow the employees to select their working hours themselves or even choose the number of hours they will work on a day (Hoffmann & Greenwood, 2001). Bevan and colleagues (1999) suggest that organizations that don’t recognize and address the work/life balance issues are at competitive disadvantage; some organization require a core time that all employees should be existing and outside this core time the employee have the flexibility to choose his/her working time (Eldridge & Nisar, 2011).

According to Beers (2000) jobs with high frequency of using flexible work arrangement are those don’t require starting and ending at specific time to do the job effectively. For example, flexible work arrangement is common among who work in executive, administrative, managerial and sales occupations. On the other hand the use of flexible work arrangement is lower for groups where the nature of job dictates a specific start and end time. For instance, nurses, teacher, and manufacturing operations. Flexible work arrangements usability differs among the employees working in different industries, flexible work schedule usability is limited in the education sector. In private sector the flexible work schedule is highly used in service producing organization than in good producing organization (Beers, 2000).

Types of Flexible working hours
There are different forms of flexible working hours; flexitime form is a system under which the employee decides each day when to start the work, without changing the total working hours that the employee should commit to (Haar, 2007) Another form of flexible working hours is the variable hours; it removes the specified hours of work from the flexitime system, employees are free to define how number of hours to spend in their working day or week (Hoffmann & Greenwood, 2001). Staggered working hours is another form of flexible working hours systems; under this form of flexible working hours different employees groups can arrive at different times with predetermined working hours for the day which creates an overlap of different employees groups schedules (Hoffmann & Greenwood, 2001).

Compressed working hours is yet another available form, in which the daily working hours are increased more than the standard 8 working hours a day to produce a shorter working week (Wedderburn, 1996).

Benefits of Flexible Work Arrangements
While there has been a fear from flexible working hours systems that by allowing employees to choose the working hours that suits them will lead to reduction in the organization productivity, Lee and Young (1978) Suggested that a flexible working hour arrangement can provide the context for a more efficient utilization of the human 24-hour clock and can decrease stress of not being able to balance between work needs and life demands; and it helps reducing the employees absenteeism (Eldridge & Nisar, 2011) .

Hayman (2009) explored the relationship between the perceived usability of flexible working hours and work/life...
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