Humanities Chapters 31, 32, 33

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Chapter 31
1. No. He stated, “ ‘Progress’ is merely a modern idea, that is, a false ideal. The European of today is vastly inferior in value to the European of the Renaissance: further development is altogether not according to any necessity in the direction of elevation, enhancement, or strength.

2. A.) Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire, Stephane Mallarme, & Maurice Maeterlinck. B.) To find a language that embraced the mystical, the erotic, and the ineffable world of the senses.

3. A faun is part man, part beast. A nymph is a beautiful forest maiden. They have an erotic encounter.

4. They preserved the romantic fascination with nature and the Realist preoccupation with daily life. They idealized nature. They were interested in sensation and the sensory experience. They tried to record an instantaneous vision of their world, sacrificing the details of perceived objects in order to capture the effects of light and atmosphere. Some painted canvases that offered a glimpse into the pleasures of 19th century urban life.

5. Bergson viewed life as a vital impulse that evolved creatively, much like a work of art. True to Bergson’s theory of duration, experience becomes a stream of sensations in which past and present merge.

6. Reliquaries, masks, and freestanding sculptures were among the power objects used to channel the spirits of ancestors, celebrate rites of passage, and ensure the well-being of the community. Beadwork using seed beads and wood carving with hammered brass were unique features.

7. Post-Impressionist paintings were a broad reaction against Impressionism. The works continued to use the bright Impressionist palette, but rejected the Impressionism’s emphasis on the spontaneous recording of light and color. Post-Impressionists sought to create art with a greater degree of formal order and structure. The new styles they created, Georges Seurat’s divisionist technique and Vincent van Gogh’s brushwork, led to more abstract styles that would prove highly influential for the development of modernist painting in the early twentieth century. Post-Impressionist compositions focused on the personal experience of the painter, versus fidelity to the object like in Impressionism; the style of the work, developing a new method of paint application or viewing the piece from multiple angles, was more important than subject matter.

8. The art of Paul Gauguin developed out of similar Impressionist foundations, but he too dispensed with Impressionistic handling of pigment and imagery in exchange for an approach characterized by solid patches of color and clearly defined forms, which he used to depict exotic themes and images of private and religious symbolism. Gauguin looked toward remote destinations where he could live easily and paint the purity of the country and its inhabitants.

Chapter 32

1. A.) Imagists were a group of poets who were leaders in the search for a more concentrated style of expression. B.) Verbal compression, formal precision and economy of expression were the goals of the imagists. 2.A.) The work portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Avinyó Street in Barcelona. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine. The women appear as slightly menacing and rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes. Picasso “Africanizes” the two pink (white European) bodies of the two prostitutes who are seen on the right hand side of the picture and the other three faces he evokes an Iberian style of Picasso's native Spain, giving them a savage aura. This creates an effect of cultural confrontation; difference is explicitly present and causes uncomfortableness. B.) French imperialism in Africa and the Pacific was at its peak, with boats and trading steamers bringing back ritual carvings and masks as curiosities. While the African carvings had a kind of quirky...
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