Humanities 101

Topics: Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia, Euphrates Pages: 5 (680 words) Published: December 3, 2013
Humanities 101 Midterm Review
Weeks 1 and 2
Mesopotamia: Sumerians, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian
Euphrates River
Tigris River
Fertile Crescent
Uruk
Cuneiform: wedge or nail shape marks pressed into wet clay –used for over 3000 years Sumerians 3500-2350
Located in lower Mesopotamia
Between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers
Part of the Fertile Crescent
Invented writing and beer (Kassi)
Purpose? Records of goods and services
2700 BCE: rough date assigned the historical Gilgsmesh, King of Uruk Images:
The Euphronios Krater 18 inches high 22 inches wide. Made 515 BCE The Ziggurats at Uruk and Ur: sunbaked, mud-brick stuck together with asphalt, 100 meters high, temple on top Created so humans could reach the heavens

The Bull-Headed Lyre

Cylinder Seals c 2400 BC
Cuneiform Tablets

Map: Find Tigris and Euphrates; Mesopotamia, Uruk, the Fertile Crescent Week 2: Terms and Characters
Hebrew Bible: The Old Testament (Christian name)
The Law
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
The Prophets
The Writings

Pentateuch/Torah: Teachings – first five books of the Hebrew bible (old testament) Decalogue/Ten Commandments: RULES
Violation of these laws in an offense to God
No punishment is specified therefore all punishments are possible Lex Talionis: compensation of kind (eye for an eye)
Genesis: The beginning
Exodus: The road out
Theogony
Aetiology: set of causes – on the seventh day god rested = sabbath Covenant: An agreement made
Abraham – covenant w/ him and his children – exclusive sign: circumcision Noah – covenant w/ him and every living thing – inclusive sign: rainbow Abraham – Made a covenant with God
[Hagar] and Sarah
Ishmael
Isaac
Isaac
Rebekah
Jacob
Esau
Ishmael
Jacob
Four women (incl. Leah, Rachel)
Twelve sons
Joseph
Esau
Moses
Aaron
Ideas to think about in reviewing Genesis/Exodus
Continuity of the narrative
Dominance of younger son
The ideal of lineage (patrilineal) from Adam to Joseph (to Moses) Selection
Expansion of the family to tribes then to a people
The repetition of the covenant
The nature of the Ten Commandments compare to Ancient Near Eastern law Weeks 3 and 4
Images:
Euphronios Krater (as seen also in week 1)
Francois vase
Broke into many pieces
Found in an Etruscan tomb
Shows a funeral procession.

Places:
Aegean; Crete; Mycenae; Troy; Ionia; Athens; Halicarnassus

Three Aegean Cultures 3000-1100 BCE
Cycladic 2800-1500 BCE

Minoan 2800-1400 BCE
Sailors, traders
Palace based
Not fortified, not militaristic
BULL RIDING

Mycenaean 1600-1100
Fortified towns
Militaristic, agressive
Terms and names:
Homer
Poet, singer of tales – Blind man from Ionia in Asia Minor

Dactylic hexameter
Poetic meter
Dactylic: Based on the Finger
Hexameter: Six measure
Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey)
Vergil (the Aeneid)
In medias res
“In the middle of things” – this is how the epic begins Ring-composition
Form of oral tradition
Simile
A way of comparing two things
Hero code (including the ideas of prizes, honor and glory)
Competitive, a competition for honor and glory
Kleos (glory)
Not limited in time or space
It is preserved and disseminated by singers poets
The greater it is, the more likely that it will last a long, long time Ekphrasis/Ekphrasis
Literary description of a work of art
Zeus
God of Thunder; Main god
Aphrodite
Goddess of Love
Hera
Athena
Eris (Strife)
Peleus
Mortal; father of Achilles
Thetis
Daughter of Zeus, Mother of Achilleus
Achilleus
Greatest warrior; trusted friend of Agamemnon
Agamemnon
Helen
Diomedes
Odysseus
Ajax
Phoinix
Patroklos
‘surrogate father’ of Achilleus
Hektor
Killed by Achilleus; killed Patroklos
Andromache
Astyanax
Son of Hektor
Priam
Briseis
Woman prize of Achilleus, stolen by Agamemnon
Sarpedon
Herodotus
Persian Wars
490 BCE/ 480/79 BCE
Historiography
Ionian intellectual revolution
Croesus the Lydian
King – thought he was most happiest person...
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