Human Growth and Development

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Chapter 6 Study Guide
1. How does Erikson’s basic trust versus mistrust help to explain the early emotional development of the infant? - The trusting infant expects the world to be good and gratifying, so he feels confident about venturing out and exploring it. The mistrustful baby cannot count on kindness and compassion of others, so she protects herself by withdrawing from people and thimgs around her. P.184 2. How does Erikson’s autonomy autonomy versus shame and doubt help to explain emotional development of the toddler? - A self-confident secure 2-year old has parents who do not criticized ir attack him when he fails at new skills---using toilet, eating with a spoon, or putting away toys. And they meet his assertions of independence with tolerance and understanding--- for example, by giving him an extra five minutes to finish his play before leaving for the grocery store. In contrast, when parents are over- or undercontrolling, the outcome is a child who feels forced and shamed or who doubts his ability to control his impulses and act completely on his own, 3. What are Basic emotions? - Hapiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust. 4. How is hapiness and anger/sadness defined in the understanding of the development of basic emotions? - Hapiness binds parents and baby into a warm supportive relationship that fosters the infant’s developing competences. Between 6 and 10 weeks evokes a braod grin called the social smile. Laughter, which appears aroubd 3 to 4 months, reflects faster processing of information than smiling. P. 185 -Although expressions of sadness also occur in response to pain, removal of an object, and brief separations, they are less frequent than anger. But when caregiver-infant communication is seriously disrupted, infant sadness is common—a condition that impairs all aspects of development. p.186 5. What is stranger anxiety and a secure base in understanding the young child’s notion of fear? - Stranger anxiety,...
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