NIGERIAN PEOLE AND CULTURE
NANRET GODFREY DIYOCK, REG. No. 4785 Bed 300 level
QUESTION: Trace the history of Nigeria from pre-colonial era to date highlighting the leaders that rule the country at various levels, also indicate specific date of leadership.
QUESTION: Trace the history of Nigeria from pre-colonial era to date highlighting the leaders that rule the country at various levels, also indicate specific date of leadership. INTRODUCTION
For one to be able to do justice to a question of this nature, it would be better if one is at latitude to write without a constraint. However, going by given benchmark an attempt would be made to achieve this. Historically, the country Nigeria came about due largely to the merchant activities of the British traders whom in their quest for larger market, raw materials and the need to exert political influence overseas led them to kick start a project that resorted into a birth of what today is known and called Nigeria. Before this, there were series of activities of leaders of various organized communities like that of the Igbos, Ibibios, Hausa/Fulani and Yoruba as well as the advent of the colonialist and the amalgamation of protectorates, constitutional development cum nationalist movement which majorly facilitated the formation of Nigeria as well as the subsequent grant of independence. EARLY HISTORY OF NIGERIA
Nigeria was a creation of the British colonial adventurer and empire builder. The Match for markets, raw materials and the need to exert political influence overseas led Britain to journey to places as distant as Wikki in present day Borno State. To the Northwest; Sokoto came under her influence too. Deriving the name Nigeria from the word 'Niger' - the name of the river that constitutes the most remarkable geographical feature, the colonial master coupled together the diverse peoples North and South of the river and its tributary — the Benue — into a modem nation-state. The external influence resulting from this trade brought tremendous impact on Nigeria. From the late 15th Century, Europeans began frequenting the Bights of Benin (now the Bights of Bonny), in search of tropical products and slaves. By the eighteenth century, the ports of Nigerian coastlines, mainly Lagos, Brass, Bonny and Old Calahar, had become centres of the trans-atlantic slave trade. Trade routes from these ports extended through the comnmunities of the South to the Hausa States. But the industrial revolution and the advent of the machine made the trade unnecessary and unprofitable. The aftermath was an increased interest in palm oil trade. In 1849, the British Government appointed John Beecroft as the Governor of Bights of Benin and Bonny His job was to regulate commercial relations with the coastal city States. Backed by fierce gunboats, he interfered with the internal affairs of these States and the process which culminated in the imposition of colonial rule came afoot. There were also missionary interests at play. In 1861, Lagos was proclaimed crown colony. And through the initiative of the United Africa Company, formed by George Goldie, through an amalgamation of British firms in 1879, most of the parts which became Northern Nigeria were preserved as British sphere to the chagrin of French and German competitors. Nigeria was first administered by the colonial masters as kingdoms before it was gradually knitted together by an act of amalgamation. Bellow are the kingdoms under which Nigeria existed. Hausa/Fulani
History has it that the Fulani took over the political leadership of the Habe (Hausa) states in the early 19th century. The Jihad that took place hitherto was seen as a religious one as well as political. Othman Dan Fodio led the Fulani Jihad and took over the political leadership of the entire Hausa state and established the Sokoto Caliphate with an outstanding centralized political system of government. He then introduced...