History of human Resource Management
Some of the vital principles of HRM were used in prehistoric times, like mechanisms being developed for selecting tribal leaders. Knowledge was recorded and passed on to the next generation about safety, health, hunting, and gathering food.
2000 BC to 1000 BC saw the development of more advanced HR functions. The Chinese are known to be the first to use employee screening techniques, back in 1115 BC, while the Greeks started using the apprentice system in 2000 BC. These practices showed the importance of selecting and training the right individuals for related jobs. During late 1700s and early 1800s, the United States evolved from an agricultural nation to an industrial nation. Innovative manufacturing processed were being developed; the transition known as Industrial Revolution, followed by the creation of Labor unions from 1790 to 1820.
A labor shortage existed in the early 20th century, thus management focused on increasing the productivity of its employees. Frederick Taylor, known as the father of scientific management, played a significant role in the development of the personnel function. Taylor advocated the scientific selection and training of workers. He also pioneered incentive systems that rewarded workers for meeting and/or exceeding performance standards. Although Taylor's focus primarily was on optimizing efficiency in manufacturing environments, his principles laid the ground-work for future HRM development. As Taylor was developing his ideas about scientific management, other pioneers were working on applying the principles of psychology to the recruitment, selection, and training of workers. The Hawthorne Studies, which were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s at Western Electric, sparked an increased emphasis on the social and informal aspects of the workplace. Interpretations of the studies emphasized human relations and the link between worker satisfaction and productivity. With the passage of the...
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