History: Cold War (Review)

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History Unit 5 Test Review

Cold War: refers to the period after the Second World War between 1945 and 1990, when increasing political and diplomatic tension between the West/United States and the East/Soviet Union created a constant threat of war. There were 2 speeches given in 1946 that alerted the world to the growing tension between the soviet and western world. 1. Stalin’s “Two Hostile Camps”: In February 1946 Stalin gave a speech to voters in Munich in the speech he predicted that the unevenness of development in the capitalist world would cause a split into two hostile camps with war being the inevitable option. He predicted as well that the future would be no external nor internal peace. People of the western world took this to mean that war with the west was again inevitable. 2. Churchill’s “Iron Curtain”: Churchill always distrusted Stalin and in 1946 he accepted President Truman’s invitation to visit the U.S. Once there Churchill gave a speech to the American people emphasizing the need for English peaking people to unit outside of the UN to re order the world. He ended up convincing many that Truman’s “get tough” approach to the soviets was the right one. Containment: The American foreign policy created in 1947 that through economic and technical assistance stopped the spread of communism in threatened countries. It later involved military force as well. The policy of Containment was put to action in the Truman Doctrine, The Marshall Plan, the Berlin airlift and the formation of NATO. 1. Truman Doctrine (U.S TO DONATE MONEY): In March 1947 President Truman called on the U.s to resist communism throughout the world. Truman’s speech was designed to get support for an American pledge of hundreds of millions of dollars to prevent the spread of communism in Europe. Greece at the time was in a civil war in which rebel forces were looking to over throe the pro-western government. This policy of fighting communism around the world became known as the Truman doctrine. American aid would be given to a number of regimes, in an effort to block communism. Thus the U.S committed itself to sacrificing money and lives to stop the spread of communism. 2. Marshall Plan (AID TO COUNTRIES DESTROYED BY WAR): In 1947 Western Europe was in a midst of postwar depression. Unemployment and social unrest was a concern to the U.S. In order to keep the western countries free of soviet influence they had to regain their economic power and stability. Therefore in June of the same year the Marshall plan was announced this plan offered to aid all countries devastated by war. Countries who accepted this aid would have to open their economic records to the U.S. although the soviets explored this idea they concluded it to be a branch of the Truman doctrine and therefore declined. However in the 4 years that it was put in place 16 countries accepted this aid and industrial growth flourished, these European countries would not turn to communism. 3. Berlin Airlift (BLOCKADE): Until 1948 the two superpowers had not been drawn into open conflict with the cold war to blame. Britain, France and the U.S were preparing to establish an independent West Germany state, the soviets wanted this plan blocked and to unite Germany under soviet control. To accomplish this all supplies, rail, canals and road links to West Berlin were cut off by the soviets. To the west this was a test of their commitment to West Germany, ad so 24 hours a day for 11 months thousands of tonnes of supplies were flown into West Germany until the soviets finally lifted the blockade. West Germany was created in May 1948 and the east was created in October that same year. By standing against the soviets during the blockade western powers demonstrated their resolve to stand up to the soviets and strengthened the westerns ties with the West Germans. 4. NATO (ALLIANCE SYSTEM): In April 1949 NATO was established, led by the U.S it brought together 12 countries to counter...
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