Application of Conduction & Convection
Application of Radiation
What does the subject of heat transfer
deal with? And why it is important.
What does the subject of mass transfer
Heat transfer is the science that deals with
the study of rates of exchange of heat
between hot and cold bodies.
The hot and cold bodies are called source
and receiver respectively.
In all such cases temperature difference
between a source and the receiver is the
driving force for heat transfer.
Difference between TD and HT
The former deals with heat and other forms of energy.
Whereas, the latter is concerned with the analysis of the rate of heat transfer.
TD deals with systems in equilibrium so it cannot be used to predict how fast a change will take place since a system is
not in equilibrium during the process, but it may predict the amount of energy required to change the system form one
equilibrium state to another.
Ex:- cooling of hot steel bar place in a jar of water
Why it is important to study HT?
Once we have the LAWS which govern the HT
we will be in position to design an equipment
and to size an equipment in which the HT
Ex-: car Radiator (HT from cylinder wall to water
and water to air) is typical example of a HE.
To design this HE one should have the
knowledge of convective HT occurring at air and
water side and conduction occurring on Fins and
Tube of radiator
The study of rates of exchange of Mass
from region of high conc to a region of low
EX:- drying of a film
- evaporation of water from a pool to
Some Problem of interest in HT
Heat loss through thermal insulation of
Heat transfer to water flowing through a
Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction is a flow of heat in a substance due to exchange of energy between molecules having high energy and molecules having less energy
Conduction in solids
Conduction occur at molecular scale, the hotter the molecules with greater energy imparting to the adjacent molecules at low energy level
1. Lattice Vibration
2. Motion of free electrons
Liquid or Gas
Freedom of movement (at macroscopic level they are stationary but moving at microscopic level) transfer of energy occur due to collision of molecules
The transfer of energy from one region to another due to the macroscopic motion in a fluid, added on to the energy transfer by conduction is called heat transfer by convection.
Convection is restricted to the flow of heat in fluids. If the fluid motion is caused by differences in the density resulting from temperature difference in a fluid, the heat transfer is said to be free or natural convection.
If the fluid motion is artificially created by means of an external agency like pump, blower or agitator, the heat transfer is termed as forced convection
Simple Refrigeration Unit
1. Refrigerator & Freezer
2. Air Conditioner
Ultra Low Temperature Freezer
P-H diagram of simple refrigeration unit
Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
q hATw T f
Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th
the volume of natural gas in the gaseous
The natural gas is then condensed into a
liquid at close to atmospheric pressure
(maximum transport pressure set at around
25 kPa/3.6 psi) by cooling it to
approximately −162 °C (−260 °F)..
– Compactness, saving installation...