Hcm Chapter 10 11 12

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 45
  • Published : March 28, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
CHAPTER 1
Social Influence
The effect that words, actions, or presence of people have on our attitudes, thoughts, feelings and behavior

Construal
The way people interpret the social environment. (How do you construe someone's behavior? Is it polite, rude etc?)

Individual differences
aspects of personalities that makes people unique

Social psych analyses the individual in the context of a social situation, and it aims to identify universal human nature traits that makes everyone susceptible to social influences, regardless of social class or culture

Fundamental attribution error
explaining our own or other peoples' behavior based on personality characteristics alone. Underestimates social influence

Behaviorism
Approach to understanding behavior through only reinforcing properties of events. (Positive, negative, punishment, operant conditioning)

Gestalt psych
Studies subjective way in which an object appears in peoples' minds, rather than the objective, physical attributes of the subject. Like perceiving a painting as a whole instead of the sum of its parts.

Self-esteem
The degree to which one views oneself as good, competent and decent

Social cognition
how people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions.

CHAPTER 2
Hindsight Bias
Exaggeration of how much one could predict an outcome after knowing that it already happened

Observational method
No random assignment, not experimental, view and record measurements of natural behavior Difficult to analyse certain behavior which occur rarely or in private (peoples' willingness to help a rape victim Ethnography

Study of cultures by observing from the inside ie being a part of it Interrater reliability
reliability of an experiment based on level of agreement from 2 or more independent judges Archival analysis
Secondary source information based on historical records like newspapers, diaries etc. But information is limited and may be incomplete or inaccurate, and there is no way to prove it

Correlational method
2 variables that are measured and linear relationship observed Correlation coefficient
degree to which 2 variables are directly related to one another

Surveys
Asked questions about attitudes or behavior
Can judge relationship between variables that are difficult to observe and are capable of sampling representative segments of the population Random selection
To ensure good representation.

Experimental method
random assignment to different conditions, ensuring that there is no bias Each respondent has equal chance of being picked with no bias. Ensures conditions are identical except for the independent variable

Independent variable
Variable that is changed to see if it has an effect on some other variable

Dependent variable
Variable that is influenced by the independent variable. Dependent variable depends on the level of independent variable.

p-value
Significant if the value is less than 5% that the results might be due to chance factors.

Internal validity
Degree to which items within the test measure the construct. Nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable. By controlling for all extraneous variables and random assignment

External validity
Extent to which experiment can be generalised to other situations

Psychological realism
extent to which psychological process in an experiment are similar to those that occur in everyday life

Cover story
disguised version of a study's true purpose. This increases psych realism as the story makes people feel they are in a real event.

Field research
Increases external validity by studying behavior outside the lab in natural settings

Replications
Ultimate test of external validity. Generalised to different settings, people etc.

Meta-analysis
Averages results of 2 or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable.

Basic research
Done purely...
tracking img