Grade 11 Biology Exam Review

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Diversity
WORD| DEFINITION|
Mitochondria| The part of a cell where cellular respiration occurs| Vacuole| The part of a cell used for storage|
Cytoplasm| Fluid found outside the nuclear membrane|
Morphology| The branch of bio that deals with the structure or form of organisms| Taxon| A named group of organisms |
Phylogenetic tree | Shows the evolutionary differences between different species| Capsid| The outer layer of protein that surrounds the genetic material of a virus| Conjugation| A process in which there is a transfer of genetic materials between two cells| Gymnosperm| A group in seed producing vascular plants that produce cones and are evergreen | Exoskeleton| A external skeleton that protects organs, provides support for muscles attachment and protects against water loss and predation | Chloroplast | The site of photosynthesis in plant cells | Nucleolus | Contains genetic info that controls eukaryotic cells| Ribosomes| Produces protein in a cell |

Phylogeny| The evolutionary history of a species|
Rank| A level in a hierarchical classification scheme that identifies a organism| Dichotomous key| A way to classify/ identify similar living things using morphological differences| Cocci| A micro-organism whose overall morphology is sphere | Plasmid| A circular molecule of DNA that is commonly found in bacteria| Gametophyte| A haploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces gametes by mitosis| Lichen| An organism that results from a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and photosynthetic plant or alga. | Biodiversity| The variety and abundance of organisms, genes and ecosystems found in a given area| Cell membrane| Semi-Permable membrane that totally surrounds the cell | Microtubules| Made up of protein and help cell movement. Provide support and shape| Species| Represents organisms that are related in the same way| Domain| The highest and most broadest of the ranks|

Bacilli| A micro-organism whose overall morphology is rod shaped| Endosymbiosis| A theory that explains who eukaryotic cells evolved from the symbiotic relationship between two or more prokaryotic cells| Sporophyte| The diploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces spores by meiosis | Mycellium| A complex, net like mass made of branching hyphae| Cell wall | A non-living layer found outside the cell membrane of plants | Chromosome| A structure inside the nucleus that contains DNA | Taxonomy| The branch of bio that identifies names and classifies species based on natural features| Prokaryote| Prokaryotes are bacteria and Archea. They are unicellular and have circular DNA that isn’t bound by a membrane. They have asexual reproduction and don’t require oxygen to carry out cellular respiration. The mitochondria and other membrane bound organelles are absent. | Lysogenic Cycle| The replication process in viruses when the viral DNA enters the host cells chromosome; the viral DNA may lay dormant and later activate; and instruct the host cell to make new viruses. |

Extremophile| An organism that lives in habitats characterized by extreme conditions| Hyphae| The basic structural unit that make up the body for multi cellular fungi| Bryophyte| Non-vascular plants (no roots/vascular system) | Fragmentation| A method of Asexual reproduction in fungi in which a small peice of mycelium breaks off and forms a new individual | Coelom| A fluid filled body cavity rhat provides space doe the development and suspension of organs and organ systems| Lysosome| A cell part that contains enzymes that digest and break stuff down| Golgi body| A cell part that is involved in synthesis and packaging protein | Linnaeus| Carl Linnaeus is known as the father of taxonomy. He created the 8 ranks| Eukrayote | Eukrayotes are protest/plants/fungi/animals and are multi cellular. DNA is in the nucleus and bound by a membrane. Cell division happens...
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