Social Sciences and Scientists
List several social sciences.
Anthropology, economics, geography, history, politics, psychology and sociology. * Anything that uses research and analysis to examine human behaviour. What do psychologists study?
People’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours, personality, individuals. Ex. What in his personality made him do this?
What are some divisions of psychology?
Psychoanalysis: probe inner experiences from the unconscious, talking therapy. Behavioural Psychology: behaviour is observable, can predict and control it. Cognitive Psychology: perceive and deal with decisions, learning, develop values, etc What do sociologists study?
Development, structure and functioning of society, groups of people sharing common characteristics. Ex. What common factors are there in people who have done something similar? Discuss the contributions of 3 sociologists.
Karl Marx: uneven distribution of wealth, struggle between rich and poor = class conflict, conflict school = struggle for wealth is the driving force behind society. Max Webber: religion, education and family are as important as economics, obtaining power by belonging to a political party /elite status group. Emily Durkheim: modern sociology, studies on suicide.
What do anthropologists study?
Culture and customs of human beings. Ex. What in his culture influenced him to do this? What do cultural anthropologists study?
The study of the cultures of living people.
List several famous anthropologists.
Leakey Family: uncovered fossils of humans dating back millions of years in Africa. Jane Goodall: recorded lives of chimpanzees.
Dian Fossey: studied gorillas, imitated them to gain trust.
Theories, Experiments and Ideas
List some of Freud’s ideas.
Psychoanalysis: talking about feelings, laying on couch.
Conscious and Unconscious: conscious = things we remember, unconscious = things we can’t recall but that still affect us. Id, Ego and Superego: Id = pleasure, basic needs, impulsive. Superego = conscious, right and wrong. Ego = trying to control both the id and the superego. List some of Marx’s ideas.
Why is there an uneven distribution of wealth? Class conflict, struggle between rich and poor. Said economic power leads to political power. Wanted to take businesses and put them to the power of the government, leading to communism and equality. What are defence mechanisms?
Techniques that the mind uses to deal with feelings of anxiety, frustration, etc. Ex. Displacement = taking it out on others. Sublimation = good way, writing, working out. Denial = altering reality, pretending nothing happened. Discuss G.H Mead’s theory of self concept.
2 parts of the self; I self and Me self. I self is formed through close relationships and only revealed to close family and friends, Me self is formed through rules and expectations and is our public self. Discuss the theories of Eriksson, Kohlberg and Piaget.
Eriksson: Psychosocial, self emerges as we deal with conflicts between wants and social expectations, examples are trust vs. mistrust, intimacy vs. isolation. Kohlberg: Moral development, self develops through 3 stages of social experiences, pre, post and conventional, judging morality of actions. Piaget: Cognitive development, chronological stages of gaining skills to adapt yo new situations, sensorimotor, pre concrete and formal operational. Discuss the theories of Travis Hirschi.
Said prisons only protect members from offender for a short amount of time, do little to reshape offender, strengthens criminal attitudes, said we should intervene before criminal activity by restricting unsupervised teen activities. Also conducted studies about racism in police, how a cop would be more likely to arrest a black man, changed laws.
Discuss the Milgrim Conformity Experiment....