Grade 10 Science Biology

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Diffusion: the movement of fluids from an area of high concentration to a lower concentration

Cell theory:

-All living things are made up of one or more cells and their product

-Cells is the simplest unit that can carry out all processes

-All cells come from preexisting cells

Prokaryote: no nucleus or other membrane: bound organelles (E-Coli)

Eukaryote: has a nucleus and other organelles, each surrounded by a thin membrane (Animals/human if multicell, amoeba if single cell)

Organelles

Cytoplasm: suspends organelles in cells

-Water, Jelly Like

Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports materials around the cell

-3D network of packets extending throughout the cell

Cell wall: helps the plant take its shape

-Sturdy layer containing pores

Nucleus: holding genetic information and performing mitosis

-Spherical structure

Mitochondria: converts glucose into energy through cellular respiration with oxygen

-oval jelly like structure

Cell Membrane: supports cell and allows for diffusion within the cell

-thin layer around the cell

Chloroplast: absorbs light and converts it into energy and stores it there

-looks like bricks, green, clots inside

Golgi Bodies: Collect and remove materials from the cell. Expels mucus

Strips and strands, found in stomach
Vacuoles: isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure

-oval structure inside the cell with a thin lining

Mitosis: IPMAT

Interphase: when the cell grows to the largest maturity. DNA long and stranded

Prophase: double stranded chromosome, nuclear membrane splits apart. DNA shortened and thickened

Metaphse: double stranded chromosomes line up in the center. Held together with spindle fibres

Anaphase: the double stranded chromosomes are split evenly in half.

Telophase: new nuclear wall forms to divide the two sets of identical chromosomes

Cytokinesis: the process of which the cell organelles, cytoplasm, and membrane into two separate cells. Plant cells create a wall to divide the cells into 2

Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA that makes up chromosomes

Centromere: structure that holds the chromatis together as chromosomes

Chromosomes: structure containing the DNA in a cell

Importance of cell division: as the cell grows bigger, the ratio of surface area and volume decreases, meaning the cell will not be able to have enough room to allow nutrients go to in to support the cell’s organelles and functions

Cancer

Group of cells that divide rapidly ignoring the body’s chemical reactions that tell the cell not to divide so often

Caused by mutation in DNA of the cell genetics

-Carcinogens: any substance that can increase the chances of cancer

-Heredity: genetic causes for individuals that are more pre disposed to develop cancers such as colon and breast cancer

Cells that divide quickly causing a tumor that is benign will be not harmful

Cells that divide quickly but are harmful are called malignant cells – cancer tumors

Cancer that spreads are called a metastasis cancer

Detection of cancer include:

-Screening: XRay, MRI, cat scan

-Testing; pap test, psa test, breast self exam

Treatment:

-Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, surgery to remove the tumor

Stem Cells

-Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by changing or turning on some of the genes in the DNA to allow some functions

Umbilical cord is a good source of stem cells if kept immediately after birth

Embryonic tissue stem cells are used to create blood only

Cellular Differentiation: directed by DNA to change the way they behave as they get older

Embryonic cells can divide into any other cell while a tissue stem cell can only divide into a certain type of cell

Specialized cells: cells that are specialized at performing a certain task but cannot survive without support of other cells

Tissue: group of specialized cell that make up a function

Organ: group of specialized...
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