Gp Overcrowding in Urban Areas

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INTRODUCTION
Overcrowding is when there are too many people (or cars) in a specific area so that the environment or services cannot cope. Bad town planning can cause overcrowding. Like having too many traffic lights in a certain area that slow down the flow of traffic and increase the congestion in an area. Narrow pavements also bottleneck many people into a smaller area and this can cause health and safety issues as people could be pushed into the roads if there are too many people for the pavement to handle. Also if a town is old in historic terms, overcrowding can also occur as it was designed for a much lower number of people when it was designed. When rush hour comes around as well, a street or area that does not normally suffer from an overcrowding problem can become congested and so very busy. This can also be the case if at weekends or bank holidays if there is an influx of tourists or out-of-town shoppers. Another cause of overcrowding in these times is if a small town is used as a through road by commuters. Cars parked along the side of a road can also bottleneck some roads into sometimes one-lane wide roads, also slowing down the flow of traffic and causing congestion, this problem is down to a lack of adequate parking facilities off of the roads of a town.

Causes
* Population of the area increase
* urbanization/urban migration
* more and better job opportunities
* better hospital and health care
* better living standards
* cities are social and financial centers
* better education—schools and universities
* too many people in the countryside
* low income in the countryside
* not enough raw materials (water, wood etc..) the countryside * the quality of farming land is getting worse the countryside

Effects
* Environmental problems
* Air
* Sound
* Pollutions
* Visual
* Health and Environmental Consequences
The overcrowding of urban centers is likely to cause the increase in the number of slums and shanty towns. One overriding characteristic of these slums is the lack of proper sewage system. The absence and inadequacy of toilet facilities and the overall lack of proper hygienic conditions in these “urban jungles” lead to the increase in communicable diseases such as cholera, which could result into the loss of lives. The number of persons per toilet facility and the distance from a dwelling unit to the nearest toilet facility serve as reasons for the occurrence of health problems in the city. Also the volume of garbage produced tends to increase with the increasing number of persons within an area. This poses problems for municipal authorities to properly manage the garbage system. The presence of garbage heaps in communities, in addition to an unclean environment, provides good breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other parasites that serve as threats to human existence. Furthermore the increase in the number of persons per square mile tends to cause degradation to the environment. For instance the beaches are littered with human refuse and garbage which affect the life of amphibious animals and plants that use the beaches as their habitat. Also the level of pollution of the river has risen over the years due to the discarding of garbage and human refuse into water. These waterways are used by most people who live along its banks as toilet facilities. All these have adverse effects on plant and animal life within the waters around the capital and people who consume them. * Economic consequences

* Low per capita availability of essential commodities With the high population density, the per capita net availability of essential commodities such as rice will be low. Unless this is matched by the increase in the importation of needed goods, for the short-run, the growing shortages of essential goods due to high population density could result into tensions. * Urban unemployment (More competition for jobs)

The...
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