1. What is reapportionment, redistricting, and gerrymandering? * Reapportionment- is the process of allotting congressional seats to each state following the census according to their proportion of the population. Some states will get more or less seats for representative based on population change. * Redistricting- is the process of redrawing congressional district to reflect increase or decrease in seats allotted to the state as well as population shifts within the state. The state decides how many seats a state receive. * Gerrymandering- is the drawing of congressional districts to produce a particular electoral outcome without regard to the shape of the district. a. What unit of government is responsible for redistricting? State legislators
b. U. S. House seats?
House - 435| Senates 100|
Republic- 233| 51 Democracy|
Democracy- 200| 46 Republican |
Vacancies- 2| Independents 3|
2. What are the trustee and delegate theories of representation? * Delegate- Congress should vote on what the public want. For example if a congressman is against abortion but 60% of the public are for abortion. Then the congressman has to vote for it. * Trustee- the public might have opinion but they don’t vote. So you vote for what you think it right and vote for their interest. a. Which theory of representation do most Congress people actually use and why? * Most representation of congress are Politico- a bit of both delegate and trustee, it depends on the situation for example if it about war because most people are concerned about then they are delegate however if it’s for something that is not important and the public don’t really care about then they act as a trustee.
3. Approximately what percentage of bills introduced in Congress actually become laws? 5%
4. Historically, how could one describe the power relationship between Congress and the President? * The president can’t do many things about himself so the president has to get congress to agree before doing anything. For example making laws, appointments (giving jobs for example secretary if defense) treaty with different countries, war making all need the approval congress. * If a president is popular this would cause the congress to vote with the president to prevent conflict with the public people. * If a president has good communication skills they are able to explain to the public and get the public to change their minds on different views. a. In what periods of time did each (more or less) have the advantage? * 1789-1832 (C)
* 1933-1974 (P)- Great depression cause the people to want congress to pay more attention to economic and allowed the president to do more and become more important because World War II. * 1975-1980 (C)
* 1981-1986 (P)- Great communication with the public to pressure the congressman to vote for the president’s policies. * 1987-2000 (C)
* 2001-2006 (P)
* 2007-present (C)
5. What is meant by the terms descriptive representation and substantive representation? * Descriptive- is the idea that candidates should be elected to represent ethnic & gender voters rather than the population at large * Gender, race and income for example average amount of congress make $5000 of month, or 80% of congress are female or black. Almost 60% of our senates are millionaires. * Substantive- is when representative support for certain groups * Does congress vote on how we want them to vote. Congress usually reflect the public on voting, in most cases congress people follow what the public vote because this helps the congressman to be reelected the following year. Congress usually can’t do new programs because the public are unwilling to increase tax to generate the money for these new programs. The public always want things they can’t have. a. Concerning...