Geology Final Review

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2.

1.1 The particles that make up an atom3 Basic sub-atomic particles, each has different properties. Name| Symbol| Approximate relative mass| More accurate mass| Relative charge| Proton| p| 1| 1.0000| +1|

Neutron| n| 1| 1.0016| 0|
Electron| e| Almost zero| 0.000 547| -1|
This is the culmination of the work of 5 eminent physicists, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and Chadwick.Their work basically culminates in the ideas above and the important fact that an atom consists of:A nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded byElectrons in orbital around the nucleus.3. Atomic Number = Number of Protons4. Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons 5. Atomic Mass – Protons = Neutrons 6. Atomic Number – Atomic mass = Neutrons7.Protons = Electrons8. Valence electrons are electrons on outermost shell of an atom.5. Ionic bonds happen by transfer of electrons from one atom to another, usually between metals and nonmetalsHalite = NaCl Na| Cl| 1 Valence Electron| 7 Valence Electrons|

Oxidation Number +1| -1|
***An oxidation number is a positive or negative number that indicates how many electrons ***an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stable. Oxidation Numbers * Ionic bond: Halite| | | | | |

| | | |
 Covalent Bonds: Where two atoms share an electron to get a total of 8 valence electrons, usually nonmetals Water, H20:

Compound: 2 or more atoms that are chemically bonded together. Minerals are compounds Quartz is SiO2 8. Study periodic symbol and elements
9. Know how to interpret chemical formulas, for example what does NaCl mean? Sodium Chloride, Halite, or table salt. 10. Isotopes: Simply put, isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Uranium 235 and Uranium 238 are isotopes of uranium. Because only the number of neutrons is involved, all isotopes are chemical elements, not molecules or compounds

Formation of the Solar System
1. The nebular theory was the theory responsible for the formation of solar system 2. Sequence of events for formation:
a. A large cloud of interstellar (between stars) gas began to collapse under the influence of its own gravity. b. As it contracted, it became denser and hotter, with most of its matter forming the sun at its center. c. The rest of the matter formed into a flattened disk around the sun, hotter in the inner region where more of the matter accumulated, than in the less dense outer regions. d. Gravitational attraction caused dust and cooling gas in the disk to collide and accrete (clump together) as small chunks called planetismals. e. Planetismals continued to collide and accrete to form the planets and their moon. f. Some planetismals did not clump together, and now form asteroids and meteorites. i. 4.6 Ga (billion years ago)

3. Look at pictures on test for sequence
4. Early earth was rock and uniform in composition and density throughout, Homogeneous (same throughout). g. It began to heat and melt
h. 3 sources of heat
ii. Gravitational collapse
iii. Radioactive decay
iv. Meteorites bombarding earth.
5. ***Atmosphere of early earth was made up of gases most common in solar system (hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, and water wapor, Water vapor came from volcanic activity and pangea was a land mass. 6. 4.6 billion years old

7. Fusion makes a star, uses hydrogen to form Helium
8. A nebula is a cloud of interstellar gas and dust. Structure of the Earth
1. We know about the Earth through drilling down a few km and seismic waves. 1. Layers of the earth
* Inner Core- Solid Iron and Nickel, 1255 km thick
* Outer Core- Liquid Iron and Nickel, 2220 km thick
* Mantle- Makes up the bulk of the earth, peridotite (iron and magnesium)2900 km thick, solid that flows....
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