Geography Notes

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Geography Study Notes for Exam
Landforms
* Formation of Canada
* Step 1: hot volcanoes were located where the North American Canadian area is located. * Step 2: erosion eroded away the tops of the volcanoes making them shorter * Step 3: more erosion literally combined the volcanoes into one mass of rocky land * Step 4: the mass of land is now a hard smooth plate, the Canadian Shield * Step 5: the Atlantic plate crashed into the east side of Canada and the area of subduction formed the Appalachian mountains * Step 6: erosion moved sand and dirt into the pacific ocean and the atlantic ocean * Step 7: the Pacific plate collided with the west side of Canada, forming the Rocky Mountains * Step 8: the water between the Rocky Mountains and the Canadian shield drained south forming the Interior Plains * Step 9: glaciers formed the Great Lakes

Canadian Shield – rich in rocks and very hard
Appalachian - old rock and minerals, worn down smooth
Western Cordilleras – rocky and mountainous fertile land for large trees Interior Plains – Flat and fertile
Great Lakes – low and south but provides temperate climates Plate Tectonics
* Plate Movement
* >< Convergence Divergence = Slipping and Sliding
Rock Cycle
* Area of Subduction: an area of land forced upwards by the collision of another plate Glaciers
* Form when ice is stored for a long time.
* Alpine glacier formation: when the amount of water coming down is less than the amount of ice being collected * Continental glacier formation: when the area of land is relatively cold and less sunlight is hit * Snouts form and move dirt around creating new landforms * Oak ridges, great lakes formed by glaciers

* Ice may be left behind and melts to form lakes
* Erratics formed by scratching in glaciers against other rocks Erosion
* Wind Erosion: Wind brings dirt and erodes land
* Chemical Erosion: corrosive or liquids remove soluble material Climate
* Climate: refers to the long term patters of precipitation and temperature over a certain region Factors affecting Climate
* Near Water: water’s temperature is always warmer then the ground, affecting the surrounding land. * Latitude: the farther away from the sun, due to the angle of the earth, sunlight is distributed unevenly * Ocean Currents: hot and cold air from the currents collide and bring precipitation Energy principles apply to when the currents come

* Winds: Prevailing winds bring hot air upwards and into the northern and southern parts of the earth. Convection cell property * Onshore/Offshore: thermal dynamics tell when and how the winds are going to go. Brings moisture and heat on or off land * Elevation: the higher you go, the colder it gets. Lack of particles to hold heat * Relief: the blockage on the mountain blocks moisture to one side Resources

* Agriculture: refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry. * Forestry: Over cutting of forests affects many people and the growth of many other resources * Non Renewable: Resources that cannot be put back or naturally replaced * Renewable: Resources that can be naturally replaced

* Natural Resources: Natural resources that come naturally from the ground * Mining: to get and extract resources like
* Water: Obtained from the natural water sources, used for drinking, production, sewage etc. Ecological foot print: Ecological footprint in measured in hectares and is the amount of energy used to support one’s lifestyle.(developed,developing) Forestry

* Clear cutting: (tree)(tree(tree) > (cut)(cut)(cut) < very bad for sustainability * Shelter cutting: (tree)(tree)(tree) > (tree)(cut)(cut)(tree) < relatively better for the environment * Selective Cutting: (tree)(tree)(tree) > (tree)(cut)(tree)(cut) < very good for sustainability Industries

* Primary - works directly with materials
*...
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