Gender and Society

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Men as Women Article #1 Outline
Hermaphrodite vs. Transsexual
Herculine Barbin-
* 19th century
* Genitals were ambiguous: a one-and-a half inch long penis, partly descended testicles, and a urethral opening. Has vulva, labia majora, and a feminine uretha. Never menstruated, no womb. Whole outer part of her body is that of a man. * Never felt socially accepted because he did not think a women would ever marry him. * No social status for a man-women at this time

* Committed suicide at 30
* What could have happened 100 years later?
* Gender reassignment surgery? With no gender reassignment surgery what sex might she be labeled as on her birth certificate? Emma
* 1937
* Penis-like clitoris as well as a vagina.
* Raised as girl
* Had numerous relationships with women, married a man.
* Refused to have vaginal closure and live as a man because it would mean having to work and divorce. * Why was she so content with her lifestyle?
* Possibly because her gender identity was clearly that of a women Gender ambiguity and its acceptance in other cultures
* Dominican Republic- female at birth have gender masculinized * Adopt men’s identities and social roles despite being raised as girls * Culturally, the community recognized a third sex catagory * Name for this third gender: Guevedoces (Penis at 12), Machihembra (first women, then man), Guevotes (penis and eggs) Switching Genders

* Surgically altering their genitalia to fit their gender identity * Chromosomes remain the same
* Some indicate sense from an early age of being in the wrong body * “Strategies and rituals” to create a feminized self * Gender identity vs. Gender status in western culture vs. other cultures * Western culture= preoccupation with genitalia

* Cross Dressing- Since cross dressers can put on and take off gender by changing clothes, do they disrupt the conventional conflation of sex more than...
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