Fragmentation of Western Christendom

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I. The fragmentation of western Christendom
A.The Protestant Reformation
1.Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 a.Attacked corruption in the Roman Catholic Church; called for reform b.Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read c.Enthusiastic popular response from lay Christians, princes, and many cities d.By mid-sixteenth century, half the German people adopted Lutheran Christianity 2.Reform spread outside Germany

a.Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Low Countries b.English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce 3.John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism
a.Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s b.Calvinist missionaries were successful in Scotland, Low Countries, also in France and England B.The Catholic Reformation
1.The Council of Trent, 1545-1563, directed reform of Roman Catholic Church 2.The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola a.High standards in education
b.Became effective advisors and missionaries worldwide
C.Witch-hunts and religious wars
1.Witch-hunts in Europe
a.Theories and fears of witches intensified in the sixteenth century b.Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship c.About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them women

2.Religious wars between Protestants and Catholics throughout the sixteenth century a.Civil war in France for thirty-six years (1562-1598)
b.War between Catholic Spain and Protestant England, 1588
c.Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain 3.The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), the most destructive European war up to WWI a.Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe b.Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one-third population

I.The consolidation of sovereign states
A.The attempted revival of empire
1.Charles V (reigned 1519-1556), Holy Roman Emperor
a.Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings (see Map 24.1) b.Unable to establish a unified state
c.Pressures from France and Ottomans halted expansion of the empire B.The new monarchs of England, France, and Spain
1.Enhanced state treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and fees a.State power enlarged and more centralized
b.Standing armies in France and Spain
c.Reformation increased royal power and gave access to wealth of the Church 2.The Spanish Inquisition, Catholic court of inquiry, founded 1478 a.Intended to discover secret Muslims and Jews
b.Used by Spanish monarchy to detect Protestant heresy and political dissidents C.Constitutional states and absolute monarchies
1.Constitutional states of England and the Netherlands
a.Characterized by limited powers, individual rights, and representative institutions b.Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of a bitter civil war, 1642-1649 c.Both had a prominent merchant class and enjoyed unusual prosperity d.Both built commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference 2.Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia

a.Based on the theory of the divine right of kings
b.Cardinal Richelieu, French chief minister 1624-1642, crushed power of nobles 3.The Sun King of France, Louis XIV (reigned 1643-1715)
a.Model of royal absolutism: the court at Versailles
b.Large standing army kept order
c.Promoted economic development: roads, canals, promoting industry and exports 4.Rulers in Spain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia saw absolute France as a model D.The European states system
1.The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended the Thirty Years' War a.Laid foundation for system of independent sovereign states b.Abandoned notion of religion unity
c.Did not end war between European states
2.The balance of power
a.No ruler wanted to see another state dominate all the others b.Diplomacy based on shifting...
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