Forensic Science Final Exam Study Guide

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Forensic Science Final Exam Study Guide
1.What is a fact?
a.A statement or assertion of information that can be verified 2.How do we gather information?
a.by our senses
3.What influences our ability to observe accurately?
a.Emotional states
b.Whether we are alone, part of a group, or near others
c.What type of and how much activity is going on around us 4.What are the main tasks of forensic examiners?
a.Find-the evidence
b.Document- record the evidence
c.Interpret- accurately determine the significance of evidence 5.What must be attached to evidence?
a.Chain of custody: chronological documentation of evidence 6.What is individual evidence?
a.A kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing 7.What are melanin granules?
a.Bits of pigment found in the cortex of hair
8.What makes up the hair shaft?
a.Cuticle (outside layer)
b.Cortex (core)
c.Medulla (middle)
9.What is a cuticle (hair)?
a.The tough outer covering of a hair composed of overlapping scales 10.What is the largest part of the hair shaft in humans?
a.Cortex (contains most concentration of melanin)
11.Compare and contrast advantages and disadvantages of natural and synthetic fibers a.Natural fibers:
i.Pros: They don’t deteriorate or melt as quickly and as easily as synthetic fibers do. ii.Cons: They aren’t very strong.
b.Synthetic Fibers:
i.Pros: They are very strong. Way stronger than the strongest fiber ii.Cons: They deteriorate in super bright sunlight, and melt at a lower temperature than natural fibers. 12.What is the difference between fibers, textiles, and fabrics? a.Fibers: the smallest indivisible unit of a textile

b.Textiles: a flexible, flat material made by interlacing yarns (or threads) c.Fabrics: cloths produced by weaving or knitting textiles
13.How is pollen “carried”?
a.Wind, animals, or water
14.How do plants that require animals to pollinate them attract pollinators? a.Color, smell
15.What produces spores?
a.Plants, algae, fungi
16.What is an exine?
a.Outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain or spore
17.Compare and contrast patent, latent, and plastic fingerprints a.Patent fingerprint: a visible fingerprint that happens when fingers with blood, ink, or some other substance on them touch a surface and transfer the pattern on their fingerprint to that surface b.Latent fingerprint: a hidden fingerprint made visible through the use of powders or other techniques c.Plastic fingerprint: a three-dimensional fingerprint made in soft material such as clay, soap, or putty 18.How did John Dillinger try to alter his fingerprints? Did it work? a.With acid

b.No, it didn’t work
19.How is fingerprint matching done?
a.It is computerized. It only takes about two hours
20.What is document analysis?
a.The examination of questioned documents with known material for a variety of analyses, such as authenticity, alterations, erasures, and obliterations 21.What is a questioned document?
a.Any signature, handwriting, typewriting, or other written mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute or uncertain 22.What does a document expert do?
a.Scientifically analyze handwriting
23.What is graphology? How does it relate to forensic science? a.Graphology: study of handwriting (infer one’s character and match documents), study of written and printed symbols of writing systems 24.What is an exemplar?

a.A standard document of known origin and authorship used in handwriting analysis 25.What is line form, and how is it used in handwriting analysis? a.smoothness of writing and darkness/lightness compared between upward and downward stroke; Influenced by the writing instrument, the speed of writing, and pressure exerted b.part of the 12 categories of exemplar

26.What is formatting?
a.spacing between letters and words, the placement of words on a line, margins a writer leaves empty on a page 27.What is the general purpose of forgery?
a.to...
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