Finance Formula

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Financial Environment:

Quoted rate k = k* + IP + [DRP+LP+MRP]

Risk & Return:

Expected Returnkˆ = P1k1 + P2k2………Pnkn

Standard Deviation:

The Coefficient of Variation (CV): CV = σ/kˆ

The Expected Return on a Portfolio: kˆp = w1kˆ1+ w2kˆ2+……….+ wnkˆ n

Portfolio Beta:bp = w1b1+w2b2 …….+wnbn

Security market Line = SML = k = krf + (km-krf)b
k = krf + (RPm)b

Security Valuation:

Current yield = annual interest payment
market price of bonds.

Basic Security Valuation Equation: Value (V) = CF1 + CF2 + …… + CFn + Mn
(1+k)1 (1+k)2 (1+k)n (1+k)n

Valuing Preferred Stock: Vps = annual dividend = D required rate of return kps

Valuing Common Stock:

Common Stock Value With Zero Growth. “A zero growth stock is perpetuity”
P0 = D where: D dividend the investor expect
ks ks required rate of return
Common Stock with Single Holding (one year holding)
Vcs = D1+ P1
(1+ks) (1+ks)
Common Stock : Multiple Holding Periods
Vs = D1
ks – g

Cost of Capital:

Cost of Common Equity
DCF Approach:ks = D1 + g
The CAPM Approach:ks = krf + (km-krf)β
The Risk-Premium Approach: ks = krf + (RPM)β

After-tax cost of debt = kd(1-Tax rate).
Cost of New Common Equity
ks = D1 + g
P0 - flotation cost

Cost of Retained Earning, ks = (D1 /P0) + g

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

Capital Budgeting:

Payback Period = BY + UC
BY= the year before full recovery
UC= the unrecovered cost at start of year
CF= the cash flow during the year

Net Present Value
NPV = S Annual Cash Flow - Initial Investment

Internal Rate of Return: IRR
Initial Investments - S Annual Cash Flows...
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