24. We can use the debt-equity ratio to calculate the weights of equity and debt. The debt of the company has a weight for long-term debt and a weight for accounts payable. We can use the weight given for accounts payable to calculate the weight of accounts payable and the weight of long-term debt. The weight of each will be: Accounts payable weight = .15/1.15 = .13 Long-term debt weight = 1/1.15 = .87 Since the accounts payable has the same cost as the overall WACC, we can write the equation for the WACC as: WACC = (1/1.8)(.14) + (0.8/1.8)[(.15/1.15)WACC + (1/1.15)(.08)(1 – .35)] Solving for WACC, we find: WACC = .0778 + .4444[(.15/1.15)WACC + .0452] WACC = .0778 + (.05797)WACC + .0201 (.9420)WACC = .0979 WACC = .1039, or 10.39%

We will use basically the same equation to calculate the weighted average flotation cost, except we will use the flotation cost for each form of financing. Doing so, we get: Flotation costs = (1/1.8)(.08) + (0.8/1.8)[(.15/1.15)(0) + (1/1.15)(.04)] = .0599, or 5.99% The total amount we need to raise to fund the new equipment will be: Amount raised cost = $50,000,000/(1 – .0599) Amount raised = $53,186,023 Since the cash flows go to perpetuity, we can calculate the present value using the equation for the PV of a perpetuity. The NPV is: NPV = –$53,186,023 + ($6,200,000/.1039) NPV = $6,488,212

...Wk1 DQs
What is meant by an "agency cost" or "agency problem"? Do these interfere with shareholder wealth maximization? Why? What mechanisms minimize these costs/problems? Are executive compensation contracts effective in mitigating these costs/problems?
Our textbook defines an agency problem as a “conflict between the goals of a firm’s owners and its managers” (Megginson & Smart, 2009). It then defines agency costs as dollar costs that arise because of this conflict. In thecorporate structure, stockholders are the owners of the firm, and they elect a board of directors to oversee the firm and help protect their investment. The board then hires the right corporate managers to run the firm with the goal of maximizing the wealth of the shareholders. In a vacuum, this is a perfect framework by which to run a corporation; however, the reality is that a corporation’s managers are influenced and driven both by the company’s goals and by their own personal goals. Our textbook lists a few of those goals on page 25 as personal wealth, job security, lifestyle, prestige, and ‘perks’ (Megginson & Smart, 2009). These agency problems can directly interfere with the corporation’s goal of shareholder wealth maximization because of the costs that these problems create. For example, an executive might become so focused on his personal goals that he “takes his eye off the ball” of the company’s goals. In addition, the board may have to institute costly...

...1. Refer to the following information:
Stock | E(r) | | Correlation Coefficients |
1 | 0.06 | 0.20 | 1 with 2: -0.10 |
2 | 0.08 | 0.10 | 1 with 3: +0.60 |
3 | 0.15 | 0.15 | 2 with 3: +0.05 |
A portfolio is formed as follows: sell short $1,000 of Stock 1; buy $1,500 of Stock 2; buy $1,500 of Stock 3. The investor uses $1,000 of his own equity, with the remaining amount borrowed at a risk-free interest rate of 4% (with continuous compounding).
(a) Assuming that there are no restrictions on the use of short-sale proceeds, what is this investors expected rate of return?
(b) What are some of the issues associated with short-selling, and what impact could these issues have on the expected return calculated in part (a).
ANSWER
(a) w1 = -1; w2 = 1.5; w3 = 1.5; wr = -1
E(r) = -1*0.06 + 1.5*0.08 + 1.5*0.15 + (-1)*0.04 = 24.5%
(b) short selling is restricted; unable to use proceeds from the short sale; fee for short selling reduces return. All of these restrictions could fundamentally change the return to the portfolio.
2. Consider a European call option on a stock. The stock price is $70, the time to maturity is 12 months, the risk free rate of interest is 10% per annum (with continuous compounding), the exercise price is $65, and the volatility is 32%. A dividend of $1 is expected in six months time. Determine the price of the option using the binomial method with 6-month steps.
ANSWER
3. The current price of silver is $9 per...

...Final Exam Practice Problems
1. Firm ABC’s only outstanding debt is $100,000 worth of coupon bond (market value). Its yield to maturity is 8%. Given that its tax rate is 40%, what is its effective cost of debt?
Effective cost of debt = cost of debt * (1-tax rate) =8%*(1-40%)=4.8%
2. Firm ABC has a stock currently traded at $20. The next year’s dividend will be $0.20. The dividend growth rate is forecasted to be 6% forever. Risk-free rate is 3%, and market risk premium is 4%. Assume that Constant Dividend Growth Model and CAPM give you the same estimate of the cost of capital for equity, what is the beta of its stock?
By the Constant Dividend Growth Model:
Cost of Equity = D/P+g = 0.2/20+6%=7%
By CAPM, cost of equity = R(f)+ beta * market risk premium = 3% + beta* 4%,
Set this to be equal to 7%, solve for beta: beta=1
3. Firm ABC has a cost of equity of 8%, a cost of debt of 5%. It stock is traded at $10/share, and has 10 million shares outstanding. Its debt value is $20 million. Tax rate is 40%. What is its after-tax WACC?
Equity Value = 10*10=$100 million, Debt Value=$20 million
So, equity weight = 100/120=83.3%, debt weight=20/120=16.7%
After-tax WACC= equity weight * cost of equity + debt weight * effective cost of debt
=83.3%*8%+16.7%*5%*(1-40%) = 7.2%
4. Suppose you are the founder of a private company ABC. Initially you raised $500,000 from an angel investor from the first-round financing. As a result, both you and the angel...

...T he Sisyphean Corporation
The Sisyphean Corporation is considering investing in a new cane manufacturing
machine that has an estimated life of three years. The cost of the machine is
$30,000 and the machine will be depreciated straight line over its three-year life to a
residual value of $0.
The cane manufacturing machine will result in sales of 2,000 canes in year 1. Sales
are estimated to grow by 10% per year each year through year three. The price per
cane that Sisyphean will charge its customers is $18 each and is to remain constant.
The canes have a cost per unit to manufacture of $9 each.
Installation of the machine and the resulting increase in manufacturing capacity will
require an increase in various net working capital accounts. It is estimated that the
Sisyphean Corporation needs to hold 2% of its annual sales in cash, 4% of its annual
sales in accounts receivable, 9% of its annual sales in inventory, and 5% of its annual
sales in accounts payable. The firm is in the 35% tax bracket, and has a cost of
capital of 10%.
Calculate the total Free Cash Flows for each of the three years for the Sisyphean
Corporation's new project.
I ncremental Earnings
F orecast
Y ear
Units
Sales (units × $18)
Cost of Good Sold (units × $9)
Gross Profit
Depreciation ($30,000 / 3)
EBIT
Income tax at 35%
Unlevered net income
Add back Depreciation
Cash Flows from Operations
1
2,000
36,000
18,000
18,000
10,000
8,000
2,800
5,200
10,000...

...
CorporateFinance Case Study:
Volkswagen
Volkswagen (VW)
Volkswagen (VW) is a German automobile manufacturer which was originally founded in 1937. Now VW Group is one of world’s leading automobile manufacturers and the largest carmaker in Europe, with its recent headquarter in Wolfsburg. VW is one of the ten brands under VW Group. (Volkswagen Homepage, 2011)
2011 VW’s revenue is 159,337 million EUR; net income is 15,409 million EUR, with a profit margin of 9.6707%. (Bloomberg, 2012) The increase from 2010 to 2011 is illustrated obviously in the following chart. (Bloomberg, 2012)
Income Statement for Volkswagen AG (VOW) 2010-2011, Bloomberg, 2012
Volkswagen stock (VOW: GR)
The current share price, close (Apr 13, 2012) is 119.3 EUR, its 52-week range is 82.350 - 138.800 EUR, and its 1-year return is 14.26%, as well as, market capitalization is 56,601.00 million EUR. (Bloomberg, 2012)
Interactive One-year Stock Chart for Volkswagen AG (VOW), Bloomberg, 2011-2012
VOW’s Earning Per Share (ttm) is 33.1 EUR, current P/E Ratio (ttm) is 3.5408, and Dividend Per Share (yield annualized) is 1.8771 EUR. (Bloomberg, 2012)
SWOT Analysis
In order to draw a conclusion for VW’s stock rating, SWOT analysis is conducted in this part.
Strengths
High product quality
Strong brand equity
VW group’s brand portfolio includes Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, 49.9% of Porsche, Giugiaro, Škoda marques and the truck...

...1. Calculate TRUST’s company after-tax WACC. The risk-free rate was 4.21%, the market risk premium was 6% and the company tax rate was 30%. The WACC should be rounded to four decimal places.
After-tax WACC = rD (1-Tc) D/V + rE E/V
rE = rf + βequity(rm – rf)
rE = 0.0421 + 0.81(0.06)
rE = 0.0907
E = number of outstanding shares x current share price
E = 60 million x $3.43
E = $205.8 million
D = $44 million bank loans + $1.2 million short-term hire purchase commitments
D = $45.2 million
V = $205.8 million + $45.2 million
V = $251 million
After-tax WACC = (1-0.3)(0.0348 x 44/251 + 0.0618 x 1.2/251) + 0.0907 x 205.8/251
After-tax WACC = 0.0789
Calculate the RV Division WACC using Stephens’s method in paragraph 20.
rE = rf + βequity(rm – rf)
rE = 0.0421 + 2.1(0.06)
rE = 0.1681
Using TRUST’s debt-to-equity mix of 21%:
Pre-tax divisional WACC = 0.1442 = (rD x 0.21) + (0.1681 x 0.79)
From above:
rD = 0.0543
After-tax divisional WACC = (1-0.3)(0.0543 x 0.21) + (0.1681 x 0.79)
After-tax divisional WACC = 0.1408
What could be deduced about the relative business risk of the RV Division compared to its industry competitors if the industry equity beta was 2.10?
Using industry equity beta to determine the cost of equity suggests that the RV Division’s equity risk is the same as that of the industry. This indicates that the difference in business risk between the RV Division and its industry competitors will stem from TRUST’s choice of...

...one of the most secure and low-return investments in the world).
Corporate bonds (debt issues by companies to pay for usually new things the company wants to do - build a factory, expand stores, etc.) these are not as safe, and pay a rate of return based on the risk you are taking. They get basically a letter grade, and you get paid more interest the LOWER the grade.
10. Describe two examples of equity investments. (1-2 sentences. 1.0 points)
A stock or any other security representing an ownership interest.On a company's balance sheet, the amount of the funds contributed by the owners (the stockholders) plus the retained earnings (or losses). Also referred to as "shareholders' equity".In the context of margin trading, the value of securities in a margin account minus what has been borrowed from the brokerage.In the context of real estate, the difference between the current market value of the property and the amount the owner still owes on the mortgage. It is the amount that the owner would receive after selling a property and paying off the mortgage.In terms of investment strategies, equity (stocks) is one of the principal asset classes. The other two are fixed-income (bonds) and cash/cash-equivalents. These are used in asset allocaon planning to structure a desired risk and return profile for an investor's portfolio. Investopedia explains Equity
The term's meaning depends very much on the context. In finance, in general, you can think of...

...
3210AFE
ADVANCE CORPORATEFINANCE
Financial Analysis Report
New Hope Coal Corporation
(4780 words)
STUDENT NAME: Member 1: S2704148 zhiqi Liu
Member 2: S2682143 Sai Tie
Member 3: S2730145 Lingfeng Zhan
Member 4: S2594576 Xindan Chen
Member 5: S2700906 Yinghui Huang
TABLES
Executive summary............................................................................................3
Introduction........................................................................................................6
Firm structure and corporate governance.......................................................6
Remuneration….................................................................................................8
Capital structure.................................................................................................9
CAPM BETA AND FACTOR MODEL ANALYSIS……………………….9
WACC Analysis..................................................................................................11
Firm Estimation by FCF and PE ratio.............................................................12
Growth project analysis.....................................................................................13
Mergers and Acquisitions Targets Analysis…………………………………16
Cost of Debt & Equity Funding........................................................................19
Risk...