Final Study Guide for Livanis Intl 1101

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INTL 1101 Final Exam Study Guide

Americanization
- Consumerism, individualism
- American products and values
- Cultural imperialism? Trying to homogenize world?

McDonaldization
- Fast-food principles dominant in American and other societies
- Uniform standards
- Lack of human creativity
- Dehumanization of social relations

Infantilization
- Benjamin Barber “consumed”
- Against “ethos of infantilization” that sustains global capitalism
- Turning of adults into children through dumbed down advertising and consumer goods
- Targeting children as consumers
- Homogeneous global products for young and wealthy, and for children => soulless and unethical global consumerism in pursuit of profit

Cultural homogenization
- “More alike” theory of effects of globalization
- Western culture industry
- Homogenization of popular culture
- Can be within western societies (McDonaldization)

Market for loyalties
- Regulation of communications to organize cartels of imagery
- Domestic broadcast regulation maintains distribution of power
- National identity reframed to political views and cultural attitudes that maintain existing power structure
- Facilitates predominance of one ideology

Cultural imperialism
- World patterns of cultural flow, mirror the system of domination in world economic and political order
- Not confined to the west: see Mexico, Brazil (Latin America), India (East Asia), Hong Kong, Taiwan (China)

Sustainable development
- Long-term economic growth depends on careful stewardship of the natural environment - Environmentalists
- Liberalization= unequal economic growth, resources for debt, competition (race to the bottom), increased pollution, unsustainable consumption of resources, political unrest - Free Trade
- Trade promotes growth and alleviates poverty= environmental benefits
- Elimination of trade barriers= increased value of resources
- Environmental progress is easier to achieve under conditions of prosperity

Deterritiorlization of religion
- Primarily caused by migration
- The case of Islam:
- Muslim Ummah
- Re-islamisation as deculturalisation of Islam (not linked to a particular pristine culture, global Islam)
- Quest for definition: Islam to fit every culture
- By bridging the gap between secularism and religiosity, Fundamentalism overstretches religion to the point that it cannot become embedded in real culture

Free trade and the environment

Technological Change and Disease
- Transportation
- Short term travel: 940 million tourists
- Meningitis: 70,000 pilgrims to Mecca every year, secondary pandemics upon return
- Expensive diseases in developing countries and eradicated diseases in developed countries
- Medical technologies
- Greater collaboration, more information
- BUT, new technologies can be badly used
- Ebola in DRC, AIDS epidemics in China from unsterilized needles

Demographic Change and Disease
- Population mobility
- Conditions that lead people to move are the same that favor the emergence of infections (poverty, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, state failure)
- Refugees: sanitation, food, healthcare
- 50,000 dead in a month (Rwanda, 1994)
- Haiti: cholera from Nepal? (4,800 mortalities)
- Long-term migration
- Disease to non-immune populations, and transfer of new disease back home
- Eradicated diseases re-introduced
- Migrant workers in Africa (AIDS epidemics)
- Urbanization
- Megacities=megaspread

Global economy and disease
- Global trade
- IMF/structural adjustments and liberalization reduces the role of governments (mostly in providing healthcare)
- Trade in food
- Change in dietary habits, convergence of tastes
- Demand for year-round availability of fresh fruit and vegetables
- Products from less expensive labor markets, worldwide ingredients and transport
- Food...
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