Ferdinand Marcos

Topics: Ferdinand Marcos, Philippines, President of the Philippines Pages: 59 (19243 words) Published: April 6, 2013
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth (10th) President of the Republic of the Philippines and the only president to stay in office for more than twenty years (1965 to 1986). Dubbed as the country's "strongman," he holds the distinction of being the first and only Philippine President to be re-elected in office and the last Philippine Senate President to be elected to the highest office of the land – the Philippine Presidency. He served as president from 1965 to 1969 during his first term and was re-elected in 1969. Three years later, he declared Martial Law. He stayed in office since then until 1981 – the same year he lifted Martial Law. He was again re-elected for a term of six years but only served from 1981 to 1986 due to a snap presidential election. He was proclaimed winner of the elections by the National Assembly in 1986, but was deposed from office through a peaceful people's revolt, now popularly called the 1986 People Power Revolution. Contents [hide] * 1 Early Life * 2 Law Student * 3 Military career * 4 Legislative Career * 5 Presidency * 5.1 First Term (1966-1969) * 5.2 Second Term (1969-1981) * 5.3 Cabinet and Judicial Appointments (1965-73) * 6 Martial Law and the New Society * 6.1 Return of formal elections and the end of martial law * 7 Economy * 8 Downfall * 9 Legacy * 10 Writings * 11 References * 12 External links| -------------------------------------------------

Early Life
Image:Fm classpic.jpg
Class picture of Ferdinand Marcos (with the star).
Ferdinand Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, the eldest among the three children of Mariano Marcos, a lawyer and an Assemblyman of Ilocos Norte and Josefa Quetulio Edralin, a teacher. Named by his parents after King Ferdinand of Spain, he was baptized as an Aglipayan by Bishop Gregorio Aglipay himself. He was of mixed Ilocano (Filipino ethnic group), Chinese and Japanese ancestry. He started his primary education in Sarrat Central School, transferred to Shamrock Elementary School (Laoag), and completed his primary education in 1929 at the Ermita Elementary School (Manila) when his father was elected as an Assemblyman in the Philippine Congress. He entered and finished his secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School from 1929 to 1933. From 1933 to 1936, he enrolled in a Liberal Arts course at the University of the Philippines. During his college years, Ferdinand was a champion debater, boxer, swimmer, wrestler and team captain of the University Rifle and Pistol Team (UP-RPT). After having been a battalion commander with the rank of cadet major, he was commissioned as third lieutenant in the Philippine Constabulary Reserve in 1937. -------------------------------------------------

Law Student
In 1937, Marcos took up law at the University of the Philippines where he excelled in academics, particularly in debate and oratory. He then joined the Upsilon Sigma Phi, one of the established fraternities in the university. While a law student, he was arrested and tried for the murder in 1933 of Julio Nalundasan, a political opponent of his politician father. In November 1939, the same year he received his degree in law, Judge Roman Cruz of Laoag Provincial Court of First Instance found Marcos guilty as charged and sentenced to imprisonment. He was offered a pardon by President Manuel Quezon, but turned it down. After posting bail, he took the bar exam and emerged topnotcher, obtaining one of the highest scores in history. He then appealed his own case and was allowed to defend himself before the Supreme Court of the Philippines under Chief Justice Jose P. Laurel. He won acquittal a year later and became a trial lawyer in Manila. -------------------------------------------------

Military career
During World War II Marcos was an officer with the Philippine armed forces, serving as a combat intelligence officer of the 21st...
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