Facts About the 1800s in Europe

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1. Why are Luddites famous? Hated and ransacked factories/machines

2. What characterized railroad construction on the continent? The need to expand trade and move goods to farther places faster; more efficient; different levels of government involved (England= moderate, others= not a lot)

3. What did the Mines Act of 1842 call for? Underground work prohibited for children and women

4. What were the demands of the Chartist movement? Male suffrage

5. Which law outlawed labor unions and strikes in Britain? Combinations Act of 1799

6. What does the debate about the origins of the sexual division of labor during the Industrial Revolution revolve around? Patriarchal dominance

7. What did the Factory Act of 1833 do? Limited time for children 10 and under in factories

8. What did most early industrialists draw upon for labor and capitol? Family and friends

9. What was the greatest change that works faced with the shift from cottage industry to factory work? New working rhythm/system/pace

10. What did Friedrich Engels point out? Accused British middle class of robbing lower classes

11. What was the key development that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature? Limited liability (take more risks)

12. What did Friedrich List support? Economic nationalism (protects home industry by using tariffs on other countries)

13. What did David Ricardo propose? The Iron Law of wages (not raise wage too much so as not to ruin economy)

14. Where was the world’s first important railroad? From Liverpool to Manchester in England

15. What happened as a result of the railroads reducing cost of overland freight? Larger national trade

16. What type of men built the early European railroads? Peasants and rural workers

17. What did the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 commemorate? Great Britain’s dominance of industry

18. What was the major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution? Steam engine power

19. What did factory owners do because working conditions were poor in early textile factories? Turned to orphan children

20. What were the difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the British? Lack of human capital (needed more people)

21. Which product did early textile factories in Britain work with? Cotton

22. What were the consequences of revolutionary changes in the textile industry? Cheap cotton goods, increase in wages, large amount of agricultural workers moving into industry; situation didn’t improve for children (child labor still high)

23. What factors helped the Industrial Revolution develop in eighteenth century Britain? Better sustained economy; large deposits of iron and coal; efficient agriculture; good trading system;

24. What were the characteristics of the earliest steam engines? Pumped water from mines

25. What happened because of the tendency to hire family units in the early factories? Child labor

26. What did Britain have a shortage of that held British industry back? Wood/forests

27. What was the main argument of Thomas Malthus? Food could not keep up with population growth

28. Which two nations followed the lead of Britain in industrialization? America and Belgium

29. What was the purpose of Credit Mobilier? Served as French bank (financial purposes); helped with building of roads/funding projects

30. What point of view did Andrew Ure and Edwin Chadwick express? Celebrated factories for helping people improve their lives (pro-industry)

31. What point of view did William Wordsworth and William Blake express? Criticized for hurting people’s lifestyles (anti-industry)

32. What did the Combination Acts in Britain do? Outlawed labor unions and strikes; bad for workers

33. How was Robert Owen unique as an influential industrialist? Sought reform for working conditions; wanted socialism

34. What were the causes of large numbers of...
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