1. What is the goal of science?
The major goal of science is to ask & answer questions about the physical universe that we live in.
2. How is observation different from imagination?
Observation gathers only what data is obviously true. Imagination can go anywhere—factual or not.
3. Write an equation in words & then in symbols for the following sentence: The price of coffee beans is equal to the weight of the beans times the price of the beans per pound.
Cost of Beans (C) = Weight of Beans (Wb) x Cost per pound (Cp)
(C) = (Wb) x (Cp)
4. Write an equation in words & then in symbols for the following sentence: The change in the number of individuals in a population is equal to the difference between the number of births & deaths. Let:
N = The change in the number of individuals in a population given length of time B = The number of births over a given length of time
D = The number of deaths over a given length of time
Equation: N = B – D
5. Describe the steps of the scientific method.
a. Acquire Data
i. Collect data
ii. Make observations
iii. Experimentation (where, what, when_
b. Develop a Model (i.e. form a hypothesis)
iv. Modify, Explain, Expand, & Interpret this Hypothesis c. Test the Model
v. Be prepared to modify the hypothesis or reject it entirely
6. By what criteria might you determine whether a question might be answered suing the scientific method? Determine if an experiment can be set up to factually assess the question. If it appeals to the human belief, emotions, or feelings, then it is not scientifically testable.
7. Describe the difference between basic & applied research. Basic Research: the simple quest for knowledge & answers to questions, for no particular reason other than to find out how things work and to advance knowledge. a. it is unencumbered research; it has no agenda
b. it has no mission other than to seek new knowledge & information
Applied Research: This is research with a mission. Research that starts off with a particular goal, & strives to develop methods to reach that goal.
1. Which of the following statements could be tested scientifically to determine whether it is true or false? a. Women are shorter than men.
i. This can be scientifically tested
b. Most of the Sun’s energy is in the form of heat energy. ii. This can be scientifically tested
c. Unicorns are now extinct.
iii. This can NOT be scientifically tested
d. Beethoven wrote beautiful music.
iv. This can NOT be scientifically tested
e. Earth was created over 4 billion years ago.
v. This can be scientifically tested
f. Earth was created in a miraculous event.
vi. This can NOT be scientifically tested
g. Diamond is harder than steel.
vii. This can be scientifically tested
h. Baseball is a better sport than football
viii. This can NOT be scientifically tested
i. God exists.
ix. This can NOT be scientifically tested
j. Vanilla ice cream tastes better than chocolate pudding. x. This can NOT be scientifically tested
k. Men are better scientists than women.
xi. This can NOT be scientifically tested
2. Categorize the following examples as basic research or applied research.
l. The discovery of a new species of bird
m. The development of a more fuel-efficient vehicle
n. The breeding of a new variety of disease-resistant wheat xiv. Applied
o. A study of the ecological role of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park xv. Basic
p. The identification of a new chemical compound