LEOPOLD’S LAND ETHIC
- ecological dependence: everything has a land period
- top to bottom: pure carnivore, insectivores, insects, plants, soil - reps the trophic lvl; energy flow increases as you go higher up through the ecological system in the pyramid - we are part of an ecological system (complex system)
- history of morality: expanding moral consideration = expanding the individuals who count (i.e., wife, children, etc.), the fence of community and duty; builds up until accounts for all beings (i.e., tribe/fam -> nation -> humanity -> land) - problem: doesn’t count individuals (i.e., animals)
- humans are “plain citizens”, not conquerors
- according to Leopold, community is interdependence (we affect the land, which changes us), structured (Passmore believes in discourse; we have reason), discourse / self-determination (can you have genuine community w/ the land?) - the Land Ethic: a thing is right as it tends to preserve the stability, integrity, and beauty of the biotic community and it’s wrong if it tends otherwise - the ethic we should adopt being part of land community; the reason why someone might adopt the ethic (self-enlightenment – do it b/c it’s better for you; utilitarian justification; instrumental value) - eco-fascism?
Fri., Nov. 23
DEEP ECOLOGY (contrast to shadow ecology) (wholeist)
- taking ecology and understanding our role on earth
- self-in-self: achieved thru self-reflection (identification, empathy; more than skin deep; deeper sense of self underneath conception) - how one is raised: ego – family – community – humanity – ecological self; differs based on these factors ECOLOGICAL ONTOLOGY
- no natural boundaries (i.e., we will die and everything just blends together in the end) - organic whole – interdependent relations
ETHICS OF DUTY INADEQUATE
- act out of love instead of doing a beautiful act; it will not feel like a sacrifice b/c it is the right thing to do 1) self realization...