Eisenhower/ Truman Study Guide
The questions cover Chapters 5, 6, and 7 from the Cold War book- Pearson, and Ch. 12, 16, and 17 and pages 150-161 from the Todd book. All of these sections were assigned and questions were asked in class covering most of the readings.
1. What was the difference between Cominform and COMECOM?
Cominform: Communist Information Bureau (September 1947) created as an instrument to increase Stalin’s control over the Communist parties of other countries. COMECOM: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance – was a centralized agency that linked Eastern bloc countries to Moscow (bilateral trade agreements – response to Marshall Plan) to stimulate and control their economic development and support the collectivization of agriculture and the development of heavy industry.
2. Draw a table of the important decision makers during the Berlin Airlift for the US and USSR and explain what each person’s role was during the crisis.
Important Decision Maker
| Role in Berlin Airlift
| Organized the airlift
| Caused the blockade, couldn’t do anything to stop the blockade.
| President of US during airlift, ordered it.
| British Royal Air Force also helped with the airlift.
3. What was the significance of the ‘NSC-68’?
It encouraged military and economic aid to be given to any country perceived by the USA to be resisting Communism. It warned of how all communist activity everywhere could be traced back to Moscow. “Global theme” of growing strength and influence of USSR. Presented the ‘monolithic’ view of Communism. Suggested an increase in military strength and spending.
4. List Truman’s most significance DOMESTIC accomplishments. (Pleva Notes)
Truman Doctrine: chose ‘freedom of the west or subjugation of communism’ and ssist countries resisting communism
Marshall Plan: give aid to countries
5. Why were the following people significant during the McCarthy era: a. Joseph McCarthy: alleged that the USSR had a conspiracy to place Communist sympathizers into key positions in American life. Led McCarthyism in America which accused people of being communists and took action against them. b. Alger Hiss: January 1950, Hiss, a government official, had been found guilty of passing classified US information to the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. This spy scare was used by McCarthy to further his cause. c. Whittaker Chambers:
d. The Rosenbergs: accused of being spies during McCarthyism and were killed. Showed Americans fear of communism.
6. Why was the Warsaw Pact formed?
Soviets feared the return of an armed Germany on its borders because West Germany was admitted to NATO. So the USSR created the Warsaw Pact which brought all the states of Eastern Europe into a single military command.
7. In a Chart or Table Identify the Major Events, Decision Makers, Policy associated with the events and the significance of the events. Partially filled Example:
| Decision Maker
| ContainmentRoll Back
| Long war of fighting to contain communism. Ended up back at the 38th parallel where it started. Succeeded in containing communism.
| Vietnam War
| Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ, Nixon
| Containment, FJK ‘flexible response’ towards containing communism. Military aid and military advisors to South Korea led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
| Was not successful in containing communism. Paris Peace Talks for ‘peace w/honor’. Failed, North took Saigon. Vietnam, Vambodia, and Laos fell to communism.
| The process of eliminating the cult of personality, Stalinist political system and the Gulags
| Initially more peaceful coexistence with US. But then created challenges to Soviet rule in the Eastern bloc, forcing Khrushchev to use force to keep order & loyalty
| US recognized Taiwan as China and gave...
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