Early American History - Early English Settlement Up Until the Salem Witch Trials

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Paleo Indian Groups
-Settled around Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi River, centered around modern St. Louis -Cultivated corn
-Largest city is what is now St. Louis population about 20,000 -Decline about 1250 AD
-Theory about the downfall was an earthquake

Virgin Soil Epidemics
-Caused at least partly by the introduction of European domesticated animals. -Lack of unity among groups
-Nutrition
-Lack of exposure

Diversity Native Population
-No unity between various native tribes
-Much harder to fend of English settlements
-Tsenacommacah, Powhatan – natives during Virginia settlement -Pequot War – 1637
Tensions over land and English power
Pequots banded with other tribes
Coastal indians band together
Attacked Puritan settlements (Puritans would burn Indian villages) Puritans say God is unhappy with them because of the war.
Last time in 40 years the Indians try to fight the Puritans
John Eliot- tried to convert Indians to Christianity (Praying Indians) Translated bible into indian language
-King Phillips' War – 1675-76
-Metacom, Wampanoag Indians
-Attempt to drive the English out of New England
-Phillip was his name known to the English, Metacom to the Indians
-King Phillip: Metacom: Sachem of the Wampanoag
-Sassamon (Harvard-Educated, Metacom's secretary, murdered
-Murder sparked this war.
-Started in Plymouth Colony
-Massachusetts Bay soon entered war.
-Brutal fighting
-Nov 1675-Aug 1676
-Metacom killed in August 1676
-Edmon Andros (Governor of NY) didn't help, thought Metacom would win Governor Berkeley (Virginia) didn't help either.
Wampanoags, Pokanokets (a branch of Wampanoags) welcomed Pilgrims in Plymouth 1620

The Lost Colony
-Modern North Carolina. Manteo, Roanoke Island
-Sir Walter Raleigh. First reconnaissance visit, 1584; 1585, planted first colony
-Borrowed English Navy ships 1584 (relied on the Navy thus the downfall) -English Copper VERY IMPORTANT CURRENCY
-Arthur Barlow. Wrote account of colony. (English bronze and iron in warfare) -Richard Hakluyt. Promoted settlement
-Thomas Heriot. Scientist
-1585, Expedition – state of hostility Spain vs. England
-1587, English landed more settlers but then lost contact.
-Returned in 1590--”Croatoan”
-Theories say colony moved with the Natives (Interracial relationships)

Jamestown (King James I in England)
-First settlers in 1607, mostly jewelers and carpenters
-High mortality rates 1607 April-May
-James River in Virginia
-Chrisopher Newport led voyage
-Left John Smith in charge
-1609 – starving time in Virginia – cannibalism was seen -Religion is central during this time
-King James I, first opposes tobacco (also promoted use of silk, sent over worms to Virginia) -Colonies were an extension of England. Didn't start war until the Revolution. -Powhatan people, natives during settlement

-Settlers did not learn from the mistakes of the Lost Colony -John Smith – without him, Jamestown would have failed)
-Reinforcements and new governor, Lord de la Warr, 1609
-Reorganized again, 1611. Martial law.

Tobacco in Virginia
-Tobacco, 1613
-Shipped the first tobacco in 1617
-Founding of the House of Burgesses, 1619 (Represents the first form of government, planting families) -Powhatan Uprising of 1622. Company dissolved, Virginia became a royal colony. -Commercially grown, 1620s

-400,000 pounds, 1630
-15,000,000 pounds 1660
-Peaked at 20 - 30 million pounds, 1670s-1680s
-Tobacco as currency
-Other cash crops
-Crossbred Indian and Cuban tobacco
-Became profitable in 1620
-Advantages of Tobacco
-High yield per acre
-Required little capital to set up plantation
-1619, Virginia company granted a monopoly
-Deference/deferential society
Labor
Native American,
Indentured servitude
Mostly men
Maryland, ratio of men to women was 6:1
Slaves
Fewer than 1500 in 1660 (English population, 30,000)

Puritanism
-Separatists
-Mayflower, Mayflower Compact
-Wampanoags...
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