Dynamic Chemistry & Car Crashes

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Dynamic Chemistry
Matter – Any substance that has volume & mass. E.g. EVERY THING Atom – The smallest non living thing that can exist.
Atomic Structure –

Particle| Symbol| Location| Charge| Mass|
Proton| P| Nucleus| +1| 1Heavy|
Neutron| N| Nucleus| 0| 1Heavy|
Electron| E| Electron Shell or Orbit| -1| 12000Light|

History of the Atom – The model of the atom has changed with time. Dalton – solid shape (no subatomic particles)
(indivisible particle)

Rutherford - (subatomic particles)

(electronic shells have a definite number of electrons)
(2,8,18…)

(electronic shells have a definite number of electrons)
(2,8,18…)

Bohr –
Periodic Table & Subatomic
Particles
3

7
3

7

Li
Li

Atomic Number = number of protons = number of electrons

Atomic Mass = Neutrons + Protons
= Neutrons + Atomic Number

Neutrons = Atomic Mass – Atomic Number
Therefore N = Big Number – Little Number
Therefore N = Big Number – Little Number

Electron Shells
Number of electrons in shell = 2n2

1st Shell = 2 x (1)2 = 2
2nd Shell = 2 x (2)2 = 8
3rd Shell = 2 x (3)2 = 18

p = 6
e = 6
n = 12 – 6 = 6

Group = have similar properties
Period = do not have similar properties.
= if you go from left to right the elements move from metals to semi metals to non-metals. Group = have similar properties
Period = do not have similar properties.
= if you go from left to right the elements move from metals to semi metals to non-metals.

Valency: +1, +2, +3, +-4, -3, -2, -1, 0.
Valency: +1, +2, +3, +-4, -3, -2, -1, 0.

Trends & The Periodic Table
G
R
OU
p
G
R
OU
p
80% metals
20% non-metals
80% metals
20% non-metals
Metals become more reactive

Metals become more reactive

PERIOD
PERIOD
The periodic table is arranged by increasing Atomic number or number of protons. The periodic table is arranged by increasing Atomic number or number of protons.

The periodic table shows us all of the existing known elements to date (there are 118). The periodic table shows us all of the existing known elements to date (there are 118).

*

Non-Metals & Metals & their Properties
Properties| Metals| Non-Metals|
Lustre| Shiny| Dull|
Hardness| Med-high| Vary|
Malleable (bent)| Yes| No|
Ductile (made into wire)| Yes| No|
Conducts heat & Electricity| Yes| No|
Examples| Ca, Ni, Cu,| S, O, H, N.|

Simple circuit to test for conduction of electricity

If the light bulb lights up this means that the material is conductive. If the light bulb lights up this means that the material is conductive.

Definition:

Element
-A pure substance.
-Made up of one type of atom.
-Each element differs by the number p, e, n.
-There are 118 known elements.
-Elements cannot be physically or chemically separated.
Solid
-Low compressibility
-Have their own shape
Solid
-Low compressibility
-Have their own shape
- E.g He, C, N, O

Solid
* Takes container shape
* Particles not connected
Solid
* Takes container shape
* Particles not connected

Liquid
-Particles take the shape of the container
-low compressibility
Liquid
-Particles take the shape of the container
-low compressibility

Name| Symbol|
Hydrogen| H|
Helium| He|
Lithium| Li|
Beryllium| Be|
Boron| B|
Carbon| C|
Nitrogen| N|
Oxygen| O|
Fluorine| F|
Neon| Ne|
Sodium| Na|
Magnesium| Mg|
Aluminum| Al|
Silicon| Si|
Phosphorus| P|
Sulfur| S|
Chlorine| Cl|
Argon | Ar|
Potassium| K|
Calcium| Ca|
Compounds:
-2 or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass.
-They are pure substances
-Can be broken down by chemical means.
-Can not be broken down by physical means.
-New compounds are formed by re-arranging atoms.
Mixture:
-A combination of two or more substances...
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