Starting in 1095, the Crusades were a series of religious wars carried out by Christians who wanted to secure the Holy Land of Jerusalem. In total, there were approximately seven or eight Crusades, some condensed into one Crusade. Through the Christian’s efforts, the Crusades were unsuccessful, and they were unable to secure the Holy Land.
As a result of a mass murder of Christians in Jerusalem, the Crusades erupted. •
First Crusade- Ordered by the pope essentially as revenge for those who were murdered. “ Many European leaders answered the pope's call. Armies of trained soldiers, as well as large groups of peasants, left Europe for Palestine. This First Crusade (1095 - 1099) cost many European lives, but the crusaders also inflicted great casualties and massacred Muslim and Jewish civilians” (Esposito 1). •
Second Crusade- “The success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been largely due to the disunion among their enemies” (“The Crusades” 1). The Muslims learned from their mistakes and defeated the Christians. •
Third Crusade- Called on by Pope Gregory VIII. “The Third Crusade ended with a peace treaty in 1192. Jerusalem remained in Muslim hands, but pilgrims were allowed safe passage to holy sites” (Esposito 1). •
Fourth Crusade- Stemmed from the failure of the third crusade. “Rather than condemning the Fourth Crusade has a terrible travesty of a grand ideal, most people continued to support crusading and the idea of crusading” (“The Crusades” 1). •
Fifth Crusade- Europeans become tired from all of the fighting. “He called for yet another one at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, but by then he was at the end of his years and he died in 1216 without seeing the results” (The Crusades” 1). •
Sixth Crusade- The Europeans had recovered Jerusalem, and it seems as if they got all that they wanted. “This feverish activity ended in 1229. Jerusalem had been recovered, after a fashion, so there was no urgent symbol to invoke to stir support”...
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